Units manufactory semi-finished products felt
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Effective date : The high ratio between mechanical properties and weight causes Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics CFRPs to be ever more successful, in terms both of variety of applications and of volumes of sale. However, though it is true that composite materials using reinforcement carbon fibers and the related technical fabrics are increasingly considered as the materials of the future, the problem of disposal of components manufactured therewith at the end of their service life has not yet been posed nor addressed adequately.
However, such solutions are very onerous, from both an economical standpoint and an ecological one. Moreover, a few CFRP recycling techniques have been devised, some with the aim of separating the resin from the fibers, leaving the latter as intact as possible. In general, fibers recovered with this method, taken individually, retain a fair part of the starting physical properties, but appear entangled and possibly contaminated by other materials and dusty residues.
In addition, since waste undergoes a grinding treatment before being processed, fiber length is extremely variable. Moreover, the problem of the effective re-use of recycled fibers in an industrial field, i. In this connection, besides the afore-mentioned drawbacks there should also be considered:.
Therefore, the technical problem set and solved by the present invention is to provide a method for the manufacturing of semi-finished products starting from recycled carbon fibers, overcoming the drawbacks mentioned above with reference to the known art.
Such a problem is solved by a method according to claim 1 and by an apparatus according to claim Preferred features of the present invention are the subject of the dependent claims. The invention allows to obtain, starting from recovered carbon fibers, semi-finished products suitable for the manufacturing of new finished quality products.
In particular, the method and the apparatus of the invention make the recovered fibers, with a particularly reduced length, suitable for spinning processes, overcoming the workability problems mentioned above with reference to the known art and enabling the manufacturing of finished textile manufacts of various kinds, thereby fostering recovered fibers reintroduction on the market.
In the semi-finished products obtained with the invention, carbon fibers are in a shape substantially aligned, or anyhow have a main direction of orientation, and discontinuous, i. Thanks to the method and apparatus of the invention, the fibers in the semi-finished product have a degree of alignment comparable with that of virgin fibers. As is known, fiber alignment along the direction of the stress enables to enhance the performance contribution of the fibrous phase itself.
An example of privileged industrial application of the semi-finished products obtained with the invention is the manufacturing of reinforcement members of composite materials. In particular, reinforcement fabrics can be manufactured which are able to optimally adjust to complex-shape molds, giving to the composite an adequate resistance even in zones with a very strong radius of curvature. In the known art, such complex shapes are obtained starting from yarns of virgin and continuous carbon fiber, which are subjected to a lengthening process until attaining a yarn comprised of randomly broken filaments, referred to as SBCF Short Broken Carbon Fiber.
Thus, relative motions among the filaments themselves are allowed. This technology, however, entails the limitation of a scarce predictability in fibers lengths, and of the increase in production expenses, due to the remarkable cost of yarns of virgin carbon fiber. Instead, as mentioned above, in the semi-finished product of the invention the fibers are already in discontinuous form. Therefore, the method of the invention allows to attain substantially the same features of discontinuity and alignment of the known virgin fiber yarns, but at a remarkably reduced cost and with a good control of fiber length.
Moreover, pre-forms obtained starting from the method of the invention can effectively be dimensionally stabilized by organic or inorganic yarns. Furthermore, association with suitable thermoplastic yarns allows to enhance some properties of the CFRPs manufactured with such pre-forms, such as, e.
As mentioned above, the fibers recovered and made workable with the method of the invention are usable at a cost remarkably lower than with the use of virgin carbon fiber, though providing comparable performances. The invention enables a remarkable cost reduction, both on the economical and the environmental sides, also since it avoids having to dispose of in a dump, or send to incineration, CFRP products or waste, or waste from the processing of yarns and manufacts of virgin carbon fiber.
In a preferred variant embodiment, the semi-finished product of the invention is subjected to a spinning processing with discontinuous cutting. In another preferred variant embodiment, the semi-finished product of the invention is hot-cohesioned by application of additives, or cohesioning materials in general, to obtain as output a web or tow. The yarn, web or tow obtained downstream of such processings has physical-mechanical performances adequate to a use in the field of functional textile manufacts, which may also be utilized as reinforcement for composite materials having a polymeric matrix.
Moreover, as already mentioned above, the textile manufacts, being manufactured from aligned and discontinuous carbon fibers, exhibit interesting features in term of drapeability.
Other advantages, features and operation steps of the present invention will be made apparent in the following detailed description of some embodiments thereof, given by way of example and not for limitative purposes. Reference will be made to the figures of the annexed drawings, wherein:. Referring initially to FIG. Correspondingly, FIG. In particular, in the present example recovered carbon fibers, initially in the form of tuft or cloth, are considered.
In general, as mentioned hereto, the method and the apparatus of the invention are suitable to the treatment of carbon fibers recovered from the recycle of composite materials or waste from the processing of virgin carbon fibers. Thus, referring to FIGS. The minimum length of the carbon fibers that can be treated with the method and the apparatus considered herein is, downstream of the cutting step, of about 30 mm.
Accordingly, there is a considerable increase in the amount of carbon fibers that can be spun. In general terms, the fibers being output from said cutting step have a length comprised in a range of about mm.
Cut fibers are then collected, preferably always by an automatic extraction system and, e. To this end, the device is typically a rag-grinding machine or carding willow. Thus the fibrous mass is refined, obtaining also a first step of partial parallelizing of the fibers. In the latter, the fibrous mass is sprayed by nozzles, which nebulize a typically water-emulsified product having a twin power: the product fosters fiber sliding and abates electrostatic charge.
The enzyming step is of remarkable significance, as it provides fibers more mechanically protected, more slidable and less electrostatic for the subsequent treatment and processing steps. The fibrous mass is then subjected to a step of blending with auxiliary fibers in a suitable unit In this case as well, the fibrous mass can be automatically fed to the blending unit , by a conveyor belt or an equivalent means.
The percentage of auxiliary fibers added to the mass of carbon fibers being input can be variable and adjustable, depending on the processing specifications and in particular on the textile manufact that is to be obtained as output, so as to obtain a homogeneous material able to guarantee even distribution of reinforcement carbon fibers in the semi-finished end product.
Auxiliary fibers may be of organic nature, as well as of inorganic nature. By way of a non-limiting example there are reported as auxiliary fibers, e. The blended fibrous mass is then subjected to a parallelizing operation in a suitable unit In a particularly preferred embodiment, such parallelizing step is a preferably double carding step, carried out in a suitable carding machine, at the output of which just a carded material, definable as film or web, is obtained.
A preferred embodiment of said carding unit is shown in FIG. Referring to this latter figure, the fibers of a length of mm are fed to the carding unit The fibrous material transits through a pair of feed cylinders 1 , which pinch the blanket being input and pass it to an inletting cylinder 2 , working synergistically with a doffing cylinder 3 , the latter preferably placed below the inletting cylinder 2 and at a distance therefrom dictated by the specific production needs.
The doffing cylinder 3 has the task of parallelizing and adjusting the fibrous mass brought onto the inletting cylinder 2. A drum 4 rotates clockwise and has clothing points with a special profile ensuring maximum holding of the fibers tilted in the same sense of the motion i. A carding segment 5 —interchangeable according to the grade of the material treated processing scraps or fibers recovered from CFRP —has the purpose of parallelizing the fibers even more, reducing their mass, uniformly distributing them on the drum 4 , thereby facilitating the task of the actual carding.
The carding action, enabling the feed and the partial parallelizing of the fibers, is increasingly ensured by the further carding sectors 6 , 8 , 10 and 12 set at an adjustable distance from the drum 4 ; such a distance or adjustment will be all the more narrow the more the fiber output zone is approached as an indication, 25 to 12 thousandths of inch.
The drum 4 , thanks to its large diameter and its rate, creates a centrifugal force that enables fibers, on the one hand, to be held by the clothing, and, on the other hand, to be carded by the carding sectors themselves. The clothings exhibit a point thickness progression toward the outlet, carrying out a gradually more marked parallelizing of the fibers. Each carding sector, therefore, has a more intense action depending on the number of points per square inch and on the tilt of the same points with respect to those of the drum 4.
A suction system guarantees removal of these particles, making more compact and even the material on the drum. Another carding system 13 , of a typology analogous to the segment 5 , but with a clothing with thinner and thicker-populated points, set at the outlet of the drum 4 , enables a further parallelizing of the fibers, by disentangling the last possible fibrous thickenings.
As to fiber transit, fibers held on the clothing of the clockwise-rotating drum 4 pass on an unloading cylinder The latter rotates counterclockwise, and has points which grab the fibers, holding them by friction, condensing them thereon due to the big difference in peripheral velocities of the two bodies.
Unloading of carded material occurs thanks to a film-detaching device 15 working synergistically with the unloading cylinder When being output from the device 15 , the semi-finished product is in the form of a compact film of fibers. The film thus obtained could be collected and set aside for a new carding step utilizing the same process, thereby obtaining the above-mentioned double carding.
The cards of this latter system have to be fitted like the preceding card, described and reported in FIG. Thus, the fiber will not be stressed and therefore reduced in length, or torn by drawing systems traditionally used in short fiber spinning systems.
The film being output from the single or double carding step is comprised of fibers by now well-parallelized, and could be forwarded to intermediate finishings in the form in which it is manufactured. The carding by carding segments or plates is specifically suitable to be able to process short fibers having a high ultimate strength, but fragile like carbon ones are, even when blended with other fibers, be them natural, organic and inorganic.
In a variant embodiment, said film is entrained to a very simple and reduced drawing system 16 , thereby undergoing a drawing step. The drawing system 16 operates a reduction, or condensation, of the fibrous bundle in order to obtain as output of the same drawing system a fibrous web.
Being output from such a drawing system 16 , the semi-finished product is in the form of a web. The use of a large-diameter cylinder 4 with clothings of special rubbers, or equivalent means apt to guarantee the abatement of electrostatic charges, fosters drawing.
The preparation to the spinning is carried out in a unit , through the use of a very simple and reduced drawing system which preferably enables the fibers to be drawn by a twisting system, forming a thin web, or wick. The wick thus obtained is set on special supports apt to the unwinding of the same wick.
Such supports are an integral part of a feed system for the feeding of a cylinder spinning machine or of an equivalent device. Referring to FIG. In the preliminary and central zone of the drawing system there are special contrivances enabling the sliding of the fibers, without having them piling up or floating or condensing. A double pair of cylinders ensures the right tension and preliminary drawing with partial opening of the wicks themselves, wicks which again transit into a separator individually inletting the two fiber bundles into the main drawing system, where the actual drawing occurs.
Collecting occurs according to the traditional method of spindle winding, with particular care to the selection of the spinning geometry, the ring, the traveller and the rotation rate thereof. The yarn being output from the spinning machine will be collected on suitable supports, apt to facilitate yarn unwinding for further processings.
The operations subsequent to spinning require yarns with a good ultimate strength and a determined size count. The yarn could then be subjected to two- or plural-strand coupling and be subjected to twisting, or be coupled and twisted with other typologies of yarns or filaments having specific properties selected depending on the purpose to which the end product will be intended for.
The yarn thus obtained could in turn be twisted again in order to obtain a simple-twist thread or a cord twist of plural twisted threads. On the basis of a second variant, corresponding to the left-side branch of FIGS. As to the film-forming step, this is carried out in a relevant device by using a cohesioning material, e. Thus, it is obtained just a fiber film that is then continuously fed to an activation unit , suitable to activate the cohesioning material and therefore to bring about the actual cohesion of the web.
Thus, a semi-finished product is obtained which, cut e. The yarn, tow or web provided by the above-described apparatus and method can be managed as standard semi-finished products of continuous fiber, and therefore can undergo subsequent weaving processes with optional subsequent pre-impregnation.
Therefore, it is evident that a composite thus manufactured, properties being equal, is also lighter in weight than a traditional material.
The same may hold true for the use of soluble or thermolabile auxiliary fibers. A particular application may be the use of thermoplastic-type auxiliary fibers soluble in the polymeric matrix of the end composite, enabling to increase the tenacity of the end manufact. Hoods, shields, protections, wirings and the like are the most common known precautions for performing this task.
Can Marketing and Manufacturing Coexist?
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Our goal is to deliver superior and more competitive fabrics that will help our customers achieve their demanding runability and paper quality targets. These new fabrics, like all CleanWeave designs, combine a tight structure with minimum crossover points to resist the build-up of contaminants inside the fabric and produce high drying efficiency — all in one fabric. Voith services are committed to extending the life of paper machines and keeping them operating at peak levels. With over years of experience in manufacturing, installing and maintaining paper machine equipment, Voith is your competent service partner.
A paper machine or paper-making machine is an industrial machine which is used in the pulp and paper industry to create paper in large quantities at high speed. Modern paper-making machines are based on the principles of the Fourdrinier Machine, which uses a moving woven mesh to create a continuous paper web by filtering out the fibres held in a paper stock and producing a continuously moving wet mat of fibre. This is dried in the machine to produce a strong paper web. The basic process is an industrialised version of the historical process of hand paper-making, which could not satisfy the demands of developing modern society for large quantities of a printing and writing substrate.
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The main rationale for reservation of items for exclusive production in the SSI sector were the feasibility of producing an item in the SSI Sector without compromising on quality; level of employment generation, diffusion of entrepreneurial talent and prevention of economic concentration etc. The reservation policy was initiated in with 47 items which was enlarged to items by In , the reservation list was recast into NIC codes which converted these items to Since then, from time to time some items have been added and also some items have been delated from the list. In addition based on the requirements, the nomenclature of certain items has also been changed. As on today, there are items reserved for exclusive manufacture in the small scale sector. It may be mentioned that the small scale sector produces over items.
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Strategically based in Jaipur Rajasthan, India , we are a partnership firm. Initially, we started with Wool Felt industry, now we are one of the largest felt manufacturing organizations in the Indian Subcontinent. We have a state-of-the-art manufacturing unit, which is installed with requisite machines.
They are just a bunch of dumb peddlers. While some consumer goods companies, particularly those in fashion industries with broad product lines e. In this article I will begin by detailing the areas of necessary cooperation but potential conflict. Then, I will consider the causes of conflict.
In a number of business scenarios, there is the need to classify, organize and catalogue items. These can be batches of raw materials, finished products, or even paperwork for particular business projects. The need can be felt the most in the retail sector, where outlets need to have the details of every product in their database so that during selling, each product can be checked out in a way that reflects on the database and depletes the stock accurately. To make this an intuitive process, a certain amount of ingenuity does not go far off. One of the best ways of achieving this is by using barcodes, and we at Origin Technology Associates help businesses make the most of barcodes by providing industry leading barcode technology solutions.
Они бежали за уже движущимся автобусом, крича и размахивая руками. Водитель, наверное, снял ногу с педали газа, рев двигателя поутих, и молодые люди поравнялись с автобусом.
Шедший сзади, метрах в десяти, Беккер смотрел на них, не веря своим глазам. Фотография внезапно обрела резкость, но он понимал, что увиденное слишком невероятно.
Один шанс к миллиону. У меня галлюцинация.
Такси приближалось, и свет его фар бросал на дорогу таинственные тени. Раздался еще один выстрел. Пуля попала в корпус мотоцикла и рикошетом отлетела в сторону. Беккер изо всех сил старался удержаться на шоссе, не дать веспе съехать на обочину.