Space manufacturing fat-based detergents
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- Which laundry enzymes work best?
- Soap, Fatty Acids, and Synthetic Detergents
- Technology: Engineered enzyme washes whiter than white
- Almost extinct in the US, powdered laundry detergents thrive elsewhere in the world
- Laundry Detergent Ingredients and How They Work
- Green and Clean: Eco-Friendly Laundry Products
- Detergents and soaps
Which laundry enzymes work best?
W hen you're young, "bathtime" is another word for "torture" and a harmless block of soap can seem like an offensive weapon.
Fortunately, most of us soon grow out of that little problem and learn to recognize soap and water for what they are: a perfect way to shift the daily grime. Soap seems like the simplest thing in the world. Just splash it on your face and it gets rid of the dirt, right?
In fact, it's quite a cunning chemical and it works in a really interesting way. Let's take a closer look! Photo: Some typical household detergents. All of them, except for the soap, are liquids. Environmentally friendly detergents, such as those produced by Ecover, are made with plant-based ingredients to reduce their environmental impact. Photo: Soap: the detergent we know best. This one describes itself as "pure" because it contains no added chemicals or perfumes.
Often we use the words "soap" and "detergent" interchangeably, but really they're quite different things. A detergent is a chemical substance you use to break up and remove grease and grime, while soap is simply one kind of detergent.
Soap has a long history and was originally made from purely natural products like goat's fat and wood ash. Today, detergents are more likely to be a mixture of synthetic chemicals and additives cooked up in a huge chemical plant and, unlike traditional soap, they're generally liquids rather than solids. Detergents are used in everything from hair shampoo and clothes washing powder to shaving foam and stain removers. The most important ingredients in detergents are chemicals called surfactants—a word made from bits of the words surf ace act ive a ge nts.
Photo: Surface tension makes water "bead" form tight droplets when it sits on leaves like these. That's what you want water to do when rain hits the surface of waterproof clothing: you don't want it to make you wet. But it's really not helpful when it comes to washing clothes: we want the water to spread out and wet our things properly. That's why we need surfactants.
You might think water gets you wet—and it does. But it doesn't get you nearly as wet as it might. That's because it has something called surface tension.
Water molecules prefer their own company so they tend to stick together in drops. When rain falls on a window, it doesn't wet the glass uniformly: instead, it sticks to the surface in distinct droplets that gravity pulls down in streaks. To make water wash better, we have to reduce its surface tension so it wets things more uniformly. And that's precisely what a surfactant does.
The surfactants in detergents improve water's ability to wet things, spread over surfaces, and seep into dirty clothes fibers. Surfactants do another important job too. One end of their molecule is attracted to water, while the other end is attracted to dirt and grease.
So the surfactant molecules help water to get a hold of grease, break it up, and wash it away. The cleverest part of a washing machine isn't the drum or the drive belt, the electric motor that spins it around or the electronic circuit that controls the program: it's the detergent soap powder or liquid you put in right at the start.
Water alone can't clean clothes because it won't attach to molecules of grease and dirt. Detergent is different. The surfactants it contains are made of molecules that have two different ends. One end is strongly attracted to water; the other is attracted to oily substances like grease.
Suppose you got some grease on your favorite jeans. No problem! Throw them into the washing machine with some detergent and this is what happens:. This is why soap and water clean better than either one of these things alone. Photo: Soap and water can clean almost anything thanks to detergent action. Surfactants aren't the only thing in detergents; look at the ingredients on a typical detergent bottle and you'll see lots of other chemicals too.
In washing detergents, you'll find optical brighteners which make your clothes gleam in sunlight. Biological detergents contain active chemicals called enzymes , which help to break up and remove food and other deposits. The main enzymes are proteases which break up proteins , lipases which break up fats , and amylases which attack starch. Other ingredients include perfumes with names like "limone", while household cleaning detergents contain abrasive substances such as chalk to help scour away things like burned-on cooker grease and bath-tub grime.
When it comes to the laundry, from the explanation above, you can see two different effects that are helping to get your clothes clean: there's the chemical action of the detergent and the mechanical action of the washing machine. While the water and detergent work together to remove dirt, all that tumbling and bashing also plays an important role. And there's a third factor too: thermal action , from hotter water, speeds up the chemical reactions. Photo: Detergent makers are doing their best to encourage low-temperature washing.
Thinking about laundry as a scientific problem, we're most likely to see it as a matter of chemistry. But we can also understand how the three cleaning actions in a clothes washing machine are a problem of physics—connected with a basic law called the conservation of energy. Consider this: if there's a certain amount of dirt in your clothes, you need to use a certain, minimum amount of energy to remove it, which will be part chemical, part mechanical, and part thermal.
In theory, you can reduce any one of these, but only by increasing one or both of the others. So, for example, if you use less detergent or none at all , you'll need to use hotter water more thermal energy or wash for longer more mechanical energy. Similarly, if you reduce the temperature of your wash less thermal energy , you'll generally need to use more detergent. The laundry detergents that are specifically designed for low temperatures are either more concentrated or have a completely different "recipe" of ingredients that clean using less thermal energy and coat fibers to stop them getting so dirty in future.
If you're environmentally minded , you might have given some thought to how much energy is needed to make your clothes. In fact, during the typical lifetime of a piece of clothing, you'll use three to four times more energy for washing and drying it than was used making it in the first place; cooler washing can help to reduce that impact.
Typically, 75—90 percent of the energy you use washing a load of clothes comes from getting the water hot; only a quarter is used to tumble and spin the clothes and operate the machine. Cooler washing stops clothes shrinking or stretching out of shape and helps colors last longer. Artwork: Even pioneers need clean hands! Its "floating" quality was an accidental discovery, but featured prominently in advertisements like this one from , in which a pioneer washes his hands at camp.
We all love clean clothes, but most of us also love a clean planet. Do the two things go together? Look at the ingredients label on a typical bottle of detergent and you'll see a chemical cocktail. What are all these things and what do they do? More to the point, do they have any harmful effect on our health or the planet on which we all depend? There's very good reason to think so. That's why some detergent brands deliberately position themselves as eco-friendly, not by comparing themselves to soap and water the basic dynamic-duo of the detergent world but by drawing attention to the potentially harmful chemicals used by their rivals.
Photo: "The last thing a loved up butterfly needs You might think this is a matter of opinion; mostly it's a matter of science: the effects of detergent chemicals are well documented. What's less well understood is that all chemicals are added to detergents for a specific purpose watch the BBC video in the links below to learn more , and some of the additives actually reduce the harmful impacts that detergents would otherwise have. As we've already seen, these play a crucial part in helping water to attack and remove dirt.
But once they flush away down the drain, surfactants don't stop working: they start to play similar tricks on aquatic life, for example, attacking the natural oils in the mucus membranes of fish, stopping their gills from working properly, and increasing their risk of attack from other chemicals in the water.
Some surfactant ingredients including one called nonylphenol ethoxylate or NPE produce what are called endocrine-disruptors , which can affect the hormonal balance of animals including humans , causing a variety of health problems and sometimes changing their sex characteristics. Although surfactants can be toxic to fish and other aquatic life some are even listed as persistent organic pollutants POPs —ones that remain in the environment for many years without breaking down , most surfactants biodegrade relatively quickly in sewage treatment plants before they can do much harm to the natural world.
When the phosphates in detergents enter freshwater, they can act like fertilizers, promoting the growth of tiny plants and animals. The biggest problem they can cause is a huge growth of algae, known as an algal bloom , which kills fish life by reducing oxygen. Although phosphates enter water in many different ways, detergents contribute significantly to the problem.
Enzymes are catalysts, which means they're chemicals that help to make chemical reactions happen more quickly or easily. Generally, they're added to detergents to make them more effective at tackling tricky forms of dirt that ordinary detergents struggle with. They also help to lower the environmental impact of detergents by reducing the need for surfactants.
Although it's widely believed that enzymes can cause skin problems, a recent scientific review by David Basketter et al in the British Journal of Dermatology suggested that's a myth: "the irritating and allergenic hazards of enzyme raw materials do not translate into a risk of skin reactions. Fragrances in detergent serve no purpose other than to make your clothes smell nice. But the oils from which they're made can cause rashes and skin allergies.
Throw them into the washing machine with some detergent and this is what happens: During the wash cycle, the surfactant represented here by the orange blob mixes with water. The grease-loving ends of the surfactant molecules start to attach themselves to the dirt on your jeans shown by the brown blob on the leg. The tumbling motion beats your jeans about and breaks the dirt and grease into smaller, easier-to-remove pieces.
During the rinse cycle, water molecules blue blob moving past attach themselves to the opposite, water-loving ends of the surfactant molecules. The water molecules pull the surfactant and dirt away from the jeans.
Soap, Fatty Acids, and Synthetic Detergents
Investigate how enzymes in your laundry detergent get rid of stains — and which are most important for keeping clothes clean. But beyond the eye-catching claims, how does one laundry detergent really differ from another? And is there an advantage to using those that contain enzymes? Detergents are made up of a mixture of substances, but most importantly contain chemicals called surfactants that break up and remove dirt. Surfactants — which include common hand soap — are usually amphiphilic, meaning that one end of the molecule is hydrophilic it is attracted to water and the other is hydrophobic it repels water.
Food Industries Manual. It is a pleasure to be involved in yet another edition the enforcement system and its officers, and the of the Food Industries Manual, and to know that the appearance of many more consultants, advisors and training specialists all claiming to assist manu book remains in sufficiently high demand for a new edition to be necessary. The work of revision and facturers in the discharge of what are described as updating has been rewarding to us and we hope that new and onerous duties. In reaction to all this, food the result will be found at least equally helpful to manufacturers are learning so to order their opera those who use it.
Technology: Engineered enzyme washes whiter than white
Almost extinct in the US, powdered laundry detergents thrive elsewhere in the world
DURING the next year, people in Europe should be able to buy washing powder containing an enzyme that can break down fats. Manufacturers have used enzymes in household detergents for several years because they can break down carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids in stains on clothing. Until now, however, no one has developed a commercially available enzyme that will break down fats. The company, which manufactures insulin and human growth hormones as well as industrial enzymes, claims that Lipolase is the first widely available industrial enzyme to have been produced by genetic engineering. Within five years the company plans to make all of its industrial enzymes using the techniques of genetic engineering.
Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry pp Cite as. The mixture of fat and wood ashes that reacted to form soap was carried by rain to the banks of the Tiber River and was found as a clay deposit useful for cleaning clothes. The boiling of fats with ashes was recorded as early as B.
No matter how much fun we have squishing our toes in the mud, we love to be clean. We want our clothes to be fresh, our dishes to be spotless, and our cars to be shiny. We continue to invent new ways to make things clean, and soap was probably discovered only shortly after cooking, as the fats from the food hit the ashes from the fire. Surfactants have a hydrophilic side of the molecule attaches to water, and a hydrophobic side of the molecule that avoids water.
The range of topics covered by the more than articles is Bolero Ozon. Poultry Processing Tory Ashdown 67 Forestry Peter Poschen Chapter Editor. Bleaching George Astrakianakis and Judith Anderson 72 8. Woodworking Jon Parish Chapter Editor.
Laundry Detergent Ingredients and How They Work
The company is established in marketing, with a wide marketing network and a large distribution fleet able to reach any point of consumption. Our investment in human resources and organizational policies increase our ability to respond quickly and efficiently to customer needs. We achieve continuity and growth by investing in the latest technologies and innovation in order to maintain our position in the industry. WHY US?? Half a century of experience in the cleaning industry:. Half a century has passed since the founding of our first detergent factory. One of our main objectives is for our valuable consumers to not be trapped by the high prices of international monopoly firms.
More than continuous saponification plants have been installed with plant capacities available from 3 to 20 tph:. SCNT-N full boiled saponification with glycerine recovery. More than 1. A new generation of finishing lines to match the demand of manufacturing speeds from to 1. A wide range of flowpacks with special application to soap handling is available to satisfy the most sophisticated packaging exigencies.
W hen you're young, "bathtime" is another word for "torture" and a harmless block of soap can seem like an offensive weapon. Fortunately, most of us soon grow out of that little problem and learn to recognize soap and water for what they are: a perfect way to shift the daily grime. Soap seems like the simplest thing in the world. Just splash it on your face and it gets rid of the dirt, right?
Green and Clean: Eco-Friendly Laundry Products
The name says it all. Defunkify is specially formulated to handle your dirtiest, smelliest laundry. The laundry of athletes, hard workers, bed wetters, and even pets will emerge completely defunked.
Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Food Industries Manual. It is a pleasure to be involved in yet another edition the enforcement system and its officers, and the of the Food Industries Manual, and to know that the appearance of many more consultants, advisors and training specialists all claiming to assist manu book remains in sufficiently high demand for a new edition to be necessary. The work of revision and facturers in the discharge of what are described as updating has been rewarding to us and we hope that new and onerous duties. In reaction to all this, food the result will be found at least equally helpful to manufacturers are learning so to order their opera those who use it.
Detergents and soaps
Until recently fats and oils have been in surplus, and considered a relatively low value byproduct. Only recently have energy uses of fats and oils begun to be economically viable. Food value of fats and oils is still far above the energy value of fats and oils. Industrial and technical value of fats and oils is still above the energy value of fats and oils. Animal feeds value of fats and oils tends to remain below the energy value of fats and oils. With development of new technology oils and fats industry has undergone a number of changes and challenges that have prompted the development of new technologies, and processing techniques. Oils and fats constitute one of the major classes of food products.
Эта тактика себя оправдала. Хотя в последнее мгновение Беккер увернулся, Халохот сумел все же его зацепить. Он понимал, что пуля лишь слегка оцарапала жертву, не причинив существенного ущерба, тем не менее она сделала свое. Контакт был установлен.