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Plant ware special equipment for oil refining, gas processing

We use them to give you the best experience. If you continue using our website, we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on this website. The refinery complex is located at Jamnagar in Gujarat, India. It is owned and operated by Reliance Industries. The refinery complex is spread across 7, acres and has more than 50 process units which refine the basic feedstock, crude oil to obtain various finished products. The refinery consists of hydrodesulphurisation, catalytic reforming, fluid catalytic cracking and delayed coking units.

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Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines

This page requires that javascript be enabled for some elements to function correctly. Appendix IV: Basic Refinery Process: Description and History. Petroleum refining has evolved continuously in response to changing consumer demand for better and different products. The original requirement was to produce kerosene as a cheaper and better source of light than whale oil.

The development of the internal combustion engine led to the production of gasoline and diesel fuels. The evolution of the airplane created a need first for high-octane aviation gasoline and then for jet fuel, a sophisticated form of the original product, kerosene.

Present-day refineries produce a variety of products including many required as feedstock for the petrochemical industry. Distillation Processes. The first refinery, opened in , produced kerosene by simple atmospheric distillation. Its by-products included tar and naphtha. It was soon discovered that high-quality lubricating oils could be produced by distilling petroleum under vacuum.

However, for the next 30 years kerosene was the product consumers wanted. Two significant events changed this situation: 1 invention of the electric light decreased the demand for kerosene, and 2 invention of the internal combustion engine created a demand for diesel fuel and gasoline naphtha.

Thermal Cracking Processes. With the advent of mass production and World War I, the number of gasoline-powered vehicles increased dramatically and the demand for gasoline grew accordingly. However, distillation processes produced only a certain amount of gasoline from crude oil. In , the thermal cracking process was developed, which subjected heavy fuels to both pressure and intense heat, physically breaking the large molecules into smaller ones to produce additional gasoline and distillate fuels.

Visbreaking, another form of thermal cracking, was developed in the late 's to produce more desirable and valuable products. Catalytic Processes. Higher-compression gasoline engines required higher-octane gasoline with better antiknock characteristics. The introduction of catalytic cracking and polymerization processes in the mid-to late 's met the demand by providing improved gasoline yields and higher octane numbers.

Alkylation, another catalytic process developed in the early 's, produced more high-octane aviation gasoline and petrochemical feedstock for explosives and synthetic rubber. Subsequently, catalytic isomerization was developed to convert hydrocarbons to produce increased quantities of alkylation feedstock. Improved catalysts and process methods such as hydrocracking and reforming were developed throughout the 's to increase gasoline yields and improve antiknock characteristics.

These catalytic processes also produced hydrocarbon molecules with a double bond alkenes and formed the basis of the modern petrochemical industry. Treatment Processes. Throughout the history of refining, various treatment methods have been used to remove nonhydrocarbons, impurities, and other constituents that adversely affect the properties of finished products or reduce the efficiency of the conversion processes.

Typical examples of treating are chemical sweetening, acid treating, clay contacting, caustic washing, hydrotreating, drying, solvent extraction, and solvent dewaxing.

Sweetening compounds and acids desulfurize crude oil before processing and treat products during and after processing. Following the Second World War, various reforming processes improved gasoline quality and yield and produced higher-quality products.

A number of the more commonly used treating and reforming processes are described in this chapter of the manual. Crude oils are complex mixtures containing many different hydrocarbon compounds that vary in appearance and composition from one oil field to another. Crude oils range in consistency from water to tar-like solids, and in color from clear to black. Crude oils are generally classified as paraffinic, naphthenic, or aromatic, based on the predominant proportion of similar hydrocarbon molecules.

Mixed-base crudes have varying amounts of each type of hydrocarbon. Refinery crude base stocks usually consist of mixtures of two or more different crude oils. Relatively simple crude oil assays are used to classify crude oils as paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic, or mixed. More comprehensive crude assays determine the value of the crude i. Crude oils are usually grouped according to yield structure. The higher the API gravity, the lighter the crude.

For example, light crude oils have high API gravities and low specific gravities. Crude oils with low carbon, high hydrogen, and high API gravity are usually rich in paraffins and tend to yield greater proportions of gasoline and light petroleum products; those with high carbon, low hydrogen, and low API gravities are usually rich in aromatics.

Crude oils that contain appreciable quantities of hydrogen sulfide or other reactive sulfur compounds are called "sour. Basics of Hydrocarbon Chemistry. Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules, which are organic compounds of carbon and hydrogen atoms that may include from one to 60 carbon atoms. The properties of hydrocarbons depend on the number and arrangement of the carbon and hydrogen atoms in the molecules. The simplest hydrocarbon molecule is one carbon atom linked with four hydrogen atoms: methane.

All other variations of petroleum hydrocarbons evolve from this molecule. Hydrocarbons containing up to four carbon atoms are usually gases, those with 5 to 19 carbon atoms are usually liquids, and those with 20 or more are solids.

The refining process uses chemicals, catalysts, heat, and pressure to separate and combine the basic types of hydrocarbon molecules naturally found in crude oil into groups of similar molecules. The refining process also rearranges their structures and bonding patterns into different hydrocarbon molecules and compounds. Therefore it is the type of hydrocarbon paraffinic, naphthenic, or aromatic rather than its specific chemical compounds that is significant in the refining process.

Methane CH 4. Butane C 4 H Isobutane C 4 H Benzene C 6 H 6. Napthalene C 10 H 8. Cyclohexane C 6 H Methyl Cyclopentane C 6 H Ethylene C 2 H 4.

Isobutene C 4 H 8. Acetylene C 2 H 2. Sulfur Compounds. Sulfur may be present in crude oil as hydrogen sulfide H 2 S , as compounds e. Each crude oil has different amounts and types of sulfur compounds, but as a rule the proportion, stability, and complexity of the compounds are greater in heavier crude-oil fractions. Hydrogen sulfide is a primary contributor to corrosion in refinery processing units. Other corrosive substances are elemental sulfur and mercaptans.

Moreover, the corrosive sulfur compounds have an obnoxious odor. Pyrophoric iron sulfide results from the corrosive action of sulfur compounds on the iron and steel used in refinery process equipment, piping, and tanks.

The combustion of petroleum products containing sulfur compounds produces undesirables such as sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide. Catalytic hydrotreating processes such as hydrodesulfurization remove sulfur compounds from refinery product streams. Sweetening processes either remove the obnoxious sulfur compounds or convert them to odorless disulfides, as in the case of mercaptans.

Other Refining Operations include: light-ends recovery; sour-water stripping; solid waste and wastewater treatment; process-water treatment and cooling; storage and handling; product movement; hydrogen production; acid and tail-gas treatment; and sulfur recovery.

Auxiliary operations and facilities include: steam and power generation; process and fire water systems; flares and relief systems; furnaces and heaters; pumps and valves; supply of steam, air, nitrogen, and other plant gases; alarms and sensors; noise and pollution controls; sampling, testing, and inspecting; and laboratory, control room, maintenance, and administrative facilities.

Because this is a closed process, there is little potential for exposure to crude oil unless a leak or release occurs. Where elevated operating temperatures are used when desalting sour crudes, hydrogen sulfide will be present. Depending on the crude feedstock and the treatment chemicals used, the wastewater will contain varying amounts of chlorides, sulfides, bicarbonates, ammonia, hydrocarbons, phenol, and suspended solids.

If diatomaceous earth is used in filtration, exposures should be minimized or controlled. Diatomaceous earth can contain silica in very fine particle size, making this a potential respiratory hazard. An excursion in pressure, temperature, or liquid levels may occur if automatic control devices fail.

Control of temperature, pressure, and reflux within operating parameters is needed to prevent thermal cracking within the distillation towers. Relief systems should be provided for overpressure and operations monitored to prevent crude from entering the reformer charge.

The sections of the process susceptible to corrosion include but may not be limited to preheat exchanger HCl and H 2 S , preheat furnace and bottoms exchanger H 2 S and sulfur compounds , atmospheric tower and vacuum furnace H 2 S, sulfur compounds, and organic acids , vacuum tower H 2 S and organic acids , and overhead H 2 S, HCl, and water.

Wet H 2 S also will cause cracks in steel. When processing high-nitrogen crudes, nitrogen oxides can form in the flue gases of furnaces. Nitrogen oxides are corrosive to steel when cooled to low temperatures in the presence of water. Chemicals are used to control corrosion by hydrochloric acid produced in distillation units.

If sufficient wash-water is not injected, deposits of ammonium chloride can form and cause serious corrosion. Crude feedstock may contain appreciable amounts of water in suspension which can separate during startup and, along with water remaining in the tower from steam purging, settle in the bottom of the tower.

This water can be heated to the boiling point and create an instantaneous vaporization explosion upon contact with the oil in the unit. Solvent Dewaxing. Solvent dewaxing is used to remove wax from either distillate or residual basestocks at any stage in the refining process.

There are several processes in use for solvent dewaxing, but all have the same general steps, which are: 1 mixing the feedstock with a solvent, 2 precipitating the wax from the mixture by chilling, and 3 recovering the solvent from the wax and dewaxed oil for recycling by distillation and steam stripping. Usually two solvents are used: toluene, which dissolves the oil and maintains fluidity at low temperatures, and methyl ethyl ketone MEK , which dissolves little wax at low temperatures and acts as a wax precipitating agent.

Other solvents that are sometimes used include benzene, methyl isobutyl ketone, propane, petroleum naphtha, ethylene dichloride, methylene chloride, and sulfur dioxide. In addition, there is a catalytic process used as an alternate to solvent dewaxing. Delayed Coking. In delayed coking the heated charge typically residuum from atmospheric distillation towers is transferred to large coke drums which provide the long residence time needed to allow the cracking reactions to proceed to completion.

History of TATNEFT Group

Raw or unprocessed crude oil is not generally useful in its raw or unprocessed form, as it comes out of the ground. Although "light, sweet" low viscosity, low sulfur crude oil has been used directly as a burner fuel for steam vessel propulsion, the lighter elements form explosive vapors in the fuel tanks and so it was quite dangerous, especially in warships. Instead, the hundreds of different hydrocarbon molecules in crude oil are separated in a refinery into components that can be used as fuels, lubricants, and as feedstock in petrochemical processes that manufacture such products as plastics, detergents, solvents, elastomers and fibers such as nylon and polyesters. Petroleum fossil fuels are burned in internal combustion engines in order to provide power to operate ships, automobiles, aircraft engines, lawn-mowers, chainsaws, and other pieces of power equipment. These different hydrocarbons have different boiling points, which means they can be separated by distillation.

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We use cookies to improve our service for you. You can find more information in our data protection declaration. Fires broke out at the kingdom's largest oil processing plant and another site following drone attacks. The attacks have crippled the country's oil supplies. Drone attacks claimed by Yemen's Houthi rebels caused major fires at two of Saudi Aramco's critical oil facilities, the kingdom's Interior Ministry said Saturday.

Top 10 large oil refineries

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Drone attacks set Saudi Aramco oil facilities ablaze

Petroleum refining begins with the distillation, or fractionation, of crude oils into separate hydrocarbon groups. The resultant products are directly related to the characteristics of the crude oil being processed. Most of these products of distillation are further converted into more useable products by changing their physical and molecular structures through cracking, reforming and other conversion processes. These products are subsequently subjected to various treatment and separation processes, such as extraction, hydrotreating and sweetening, in order to produce finished products. Whereas the simplest refineries are usually limited to atmospheric and vacuum distillation, integrated refineries incorporate fractionation, conversion, treatment and blending with lubricant, heavy fuels and asphalt manufacturing; they may also include petrochemical processing.

They are intended to be living documents and are occasionally updated. The EHS Guidelines contain the performance levels and measures that are normally acceptable to the World Bank Group, and that are generally considered to be achievable in new facilities at reasonable costs by existing technology.

Millions of years ago, algae and plants lived in shallow seas. After dying and sinking to the seafloor, the organic material mixed with other sediments and was buried. Over millions of years under high pressure and high temperature, the remains of these organisms transformed into what we know today as fossil fuels.

Oil and Gas Software

Concise History In Facts And Figures The history of oil industry of Tatarstan officially begins in , the time, when a commercial oil deposit was opened in Shugurovsky region. The chronicle of TATNEFT Company activity is recreated from books and brochures, State and party documents, newspaper and magazine articles, which were published during the last 60 years. It is at least as interesting to study the history of the oil industry origination in the Tatarstan area, which goes back to the remote past. The end of the XVIIth century.

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Oil refinery

An open source software suite Mesit OS is used with the Mesit 1 PLC and related systems for programming, configuration, trending, and analyzing diagnostics. It provides a single source of quality, time-coherent data at the controller and plant level to understand and adjust how your plant is operating in real time. Supply and installation of the detenction and fire extinction system. The contract encompassed the EPC engineering, procurement and construction of a single-train gas liquefaction LNG plant, with a capacity of 4. That time Saipem was named for the first time as the main contractor of a large gas liquefaction LNG plant, asserting its reputation as an integrated player, capable of managing large and complex turnkey projects in the high tech market of the LNG sector. The safety criteria adopted as design bases for the PEC reactor provide all the measures needed to reject in the area of residual risk the severe accidents leading to a loss of integrity of the containment barriers. Nevertheless, consequences of severe, very unlikely, events have been analysed in order to verify the efficiency of preventive measures envisaged in the beyond basis accident area. That's why they benefit from the latest technological improvements that were implemented at the plant.

Nov 13, - percentage of crude oil that could be refined into gasoline and demand for the types of petroleum products often led refineries to add additional equipment to This dynamic process is not unique to petroleum refineries, and many Next, we review studies examining plant exit in specific industries.

An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha , gasoline , diesel fuel , asphalt base , heating oil , kerosene , liquefied petroleum gas , jet fuel and fuel oils. Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units, such as distillation columns. In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology, and can be thought of, as types of chemical plants. The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant.

Natural gas is a fossil fuel, though the global warming emissions from its combustion are much lower than those from coal or oil. Natural gas emits 50 to 60 percent less carbon dioxide CO2 when combusted in a new, efficient natural gas power plant compared with emissions from a typical new coal plant [ 1 ]. The drilling and extraction of natural gas from wells and its transportation in pipelines results in the leakage of methane, primary component of natural gas that is 34 times stronger than CO2 at trapping heat over a year period and 86 times stronger over 20 years [ 3 ]. Whether natural gas has lower life cycle greenhouse gas emissions than coal and oil depends on the assumed leakage rate, the global warming potential of methane over different time frames, the energy conversion efficiency, and other factors [ 5 ].

This page requires that javascript be enabled for some elements to function correctly. Appendix IV: Basic Refinery Process: Description and History. Petroleum refining has evolved continuously in response to changing consumer demand for better and different products.

NCBI Bookshelf. Petroleum oil was used for many centuries in Egypt, China, Mesopotamia and Persia for heating, lighting, roadmaking and building.

В течение нескольких секунд ни он, ни она не произнесли ни слова. Наконец Стратмор откинулся на спинку стула, и Сьюзан поняла, что он постепенно успокаивается. Когда он наконец заговорил, голос его звучал подчеркнуто ровно, хотя было очевидно, что это давалось ему нелегко. - Увы, - тихо сказал Стратмор, - оказалось, что директор в Южной Америке на встрече с президентом Колумбии. Поскольку, находясь там, он ничего не смог бы предпринять, у меня оставалось два варианта: попросить его прервать визит и вернуться в Вашингтон или попытаться разрешить эту ситуацию самому.

И он согласился поехать. - Конечно, согласился. Вы же мой шеф. Вы заместитель директора АНБ. Он не мог отказаться. - Ты права, - проворчал Стратмор.

Вроде бы на нижней ступеньке никого. Может, ему просто показалось. Какая разница, Стратмор никогда не решится выстрелить, пока он прикрыт Сьюзан. Но когда он начал подниматься на следующую ступеньку, не выпуская Сьюзан из рук, произошло нечто неожиданное.

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  1. Faekazahn

    It was and with me.