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Robust excimer laser for commercial fiber Bragg grating production achieves stable, high power output with good beam quality and long coherence length By: David Gillett, Sergei Govorkov, David Rodham, and Dirk Basting, Lambda Physik Inc. Fiber Bragg gratings FBGs are becoming an increasingly important element in both telecommunications and sensing applications. To keep pace with commercial demand, manufacturers require performance and reliability that cannot be met by conventional ultraviolet UV laser sources. By developing an innovative laser cavity, we have been able to design an excimer source that provides the necessary beam characteristics and output power to write FBGs quickly and reliably in an industrial environment see Figure 1. FIGURE 1: Unstable resonator design with spatial filtering yields a robust, long coherence length ultraviolet laser source commercial fiber Bragg grating production.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How to Style a Pixie Cut & Side Bangs in 3 Easy Steps
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This chapter reviews the history of manufacturing in Kenya, starting with the period immediately before independence in , discussing industrial policies pursued by different regimes and their impact on Kenyan manufacturing. The chapter concludes with a reflection of factors that have shaped industrial development in Kenya. This strategy was a carryover from colonial policies, and its objectives were rapid growth of industry, reduced balance of payment pressure, more indigenous participation in the sector, and higher productivity and high-income employment.
However, the import substitution policy failed to create much-needed employment and its high import content caused major balance of payment problems. The chapter concludes by reflecting on the factors that have shaped industrial development in Kenya. This strategy was a carryover from colonial policies, and its objectives were the rapid growth of industry, reduced balance of payment pressure, more indigenous participation in the sector, higher productivity, and high-income employment.
However, the IS policy failed to create much needed employment and its high import content caused major balance of payment problems. On the positive side, the country enjoyed a considerably higher rate of industrial growth during the first decade of independence with the manufacturing sector growing at an average of 8. Manufacturing output grew not only faster than the rest of the Kenyan economy but also faster than other industrial sectors in sub-Saharan Africa.
Some industries expanded from a few establishments into industries with a wide range of products and a large number of employees. These included paper, textiles and garment manufacturing, food processing, leather tanning and footwear Coughlin ; KAM The IS strategy was successful in establishing industries in textile and garments, and food, beverages, and tobacco FBT which are still dominant industries today.
The strategy was implemented in an environment of generalized optimism that created a climate supportive of widespread economic performance. The government increased its participation in the economy under the strategy of IS, promoting and financing new industrial projects. Industrial production for export markets slowed down substantially because the incentive structure favoured production for domestic markets, so creating an inward-looking industrial sector whose potential was severely limited by the size of the domestic market.
Under these circumstances, Kenyan products could not compete in export markets. Of particular importance to manufacturing in this period was the emergence of the informal sector supported by official recognition and pro-informal sector policies. The manufacturing outcomes of such policies were however eroded by selective implementation which made provision for exploitation of linkages between the informal sector and other sectors.
Overall, the IS strategy penalized certain sectors such as the agricultural sector which suffered high input costs. But government continued to subsidize and guarantee industrial p. During the s, the government introduced a structural adjustment programmes SAP in order to, inter alia, strengthen competitiveness and reduce excess capacity in the industrial sector.
Major restructuring of policies and institutional frameworks was initiated through the publication of a session paper on Economic Management for Renewed Growth KNBS The government also undertook to completely remove restrictive import licensing and tariffs. In , import licensing schedules were abolished and in the capital and current transactions were liberalized.
However, even though the SAP led to liberalization of the domestic economy and opened it up to international competition Chirwa , the industrial sector continued to be inward-oriented, excessively import dependent, capital intensive, and incapable of absorbing an adequate proportion of the rapidly increasing labour force KNBS ; Swamy The institutional and market oriented initiatives taken to redirect the economy away from the IS strategy to export promotion comprised the creation of a series of export platforms.
These export platforms aimed to promote export oriented manufacturing through a systematic process of tariff reduction and through a variety of market incentives.
Other changes relevant to the manufacturing sector included the introduction of an Essential Goods Production Support Programme and the abolition of price controls in Further policy changes have occurred since the year that have had significant implications for industrial development and trade in Kenya.
In that year, the United States government enacted the African Growth and Opportunities Act AGOA , which allowed African countries to export textile and garments duty free and without import quota restrictions. The document takes stock of non-implementation of industrial strategies outlined in Sessional Paper No.
The lack of harmonized and coherent industrial policy hindered the implementation of the policies in the sessional paper. The NIP proposed creation of institutions to coordinate and facilitate industrial development with clear targets and benchmarks. Contained in these documents are many proposals targeting the productivity and general performance of Kenyan industry Bigsten et al.
Under Vision , the objective is to develop a diversified, robust, and competitive manufacturing sector. Despite the structural reforms undertaken, a close analysis of the manufacturing sector shows that supply responses to the policies have been poor.
In particular, the manufacturing sector has been experiencing poor total factor productivity growth rates. Lack of success in achieving significant export volumes as per expectations has been blamed largely on government failure to appreciate that there is a need to address other factors that hinder exports, such as inadequate infrastructure, increased crime, the spread of contraband, and rising trade costs due to corruption Asanuma et al.
However, its performance has been shaped by some notable developments. The first of these is the carry forward of the IS policy that was begun during colonial rule and adopted by the independent government. This policy served the purpose of ensuring availability of basic products in the domestic market. However, such products were overpriced and the policy distorted the evolution of industry by encouraging the excess capacity and generalized inefficiency that undermined the ability of Kenyan products to penetrate external markets.
A change came when in the mids the government eventually recognized the need to shift focus towards export promotion. However, immediate efforts to encourage exports were overshadowed by macroeconomic challenges and externally driven SAPs that were implemented half-heartedly and opportunistically.
The recognition in of the importance of the informal sector following the International Labour Organization ILO led not only to a reduction in the harassment of informal firms by state organs but also the enactment of policies and administration interventions supportive of the sector. Since then, the informal sector has grown to become an important contributor to entrepreneurship, employment, and wealth creation ILO Although these are often dismissed in the development literature, research has shown some growth and formalization opportunities for informal manufacturing firms in Kenya Kimuyu The liberalization of the Kenyan economy in the early s through the dismantling of foreign exchange allocations and price controls was a turning point for the overall economy and for industrial development.
Although this policy played havoc with inefficient industries, those that survived were more able to participate in export markets. Manufacturers relying on imported material were better able to plan their import and production plans, maintain product export schedules, and pursue their entrepreneurial dreams.
Table 4. To increase industrial capability by encouraging participation of indigenous Kenyans in industry and commerce. To secure specific types of trade and trading zones for retail and wholesale for African businesses;. To serve as a bargaining forum between the government and multinational enterprises on investments.
To deal with all issues of capital stocks in order to stamp out potential capital flight occasioned by the threat of nationalization. To advance industrial and overall economic development by promoting, establishing, expanding, and modernizing medium- and large-scale enterprises.
To promote industrial innovativeness through the development of a sufficiently national capacity in embodied and disembodied industrial capabilities for self-sustaining industrialization. Replacement of quantitative restrictions with equivalent tariffs, tariff reduction, and rationalization.
To formulate market strategies, promote an export culture, and identify regional and global export opportunities;. To liberalize the Kenyan market and make it more competitive and give Kenyan products a chance to compete in external markets.
To replace the Investment Promotion Centre and introduce mandatory investment thresholds and restrictive screening procedures for foreign investments.
To make Kenya globally competitive and prosperous. The economic pillar on which Vision is founded pays special attention to manufacturing and proposes important flagship projects in support of the sector including development of integrated iron and steel mills that will lead to local supply of machines and equipment.
To implement the blueprint to be used by the Jubilee government to implement its agenda of transforming Kenya;. Source : Based on Kinyanjui Since publication of the Economic Recovery Strategy by the National Rainbow Coalition NARC government in Republic of Kenya and Vision which was its successor, there was more focus on improving the performance of the manufacturing sector.
There was also a focus on improving the overall business climate including the rationalization of business licences. The region, particularly Uganda, is the main important export destination for Kenyan products.
Industrial activity, concentrated around the three largest urban centres, Nairobi, Mombasa, and Kisumu, is dominated by food-processing industries such as grain milling, beer production, and sugarcane crushing, and the fabrication of consumer goods, e. Kenya also has had an oil refinery that processed imported crude petroleum into petroleum products, mainly for the domestic market till when it became uneconomical to run.
A distinctive feature of the manufacturing sector in Kenya is the coexistence of the modern sector alongside a rapidly expanding informal sector. While the former comprises mainly small, medium, and large enterprises, the latter covers all small-scale activities that are normally semi-organized, unregulated, and use low and simple technologies while employing few persons.
A large proportion of industrial output is directed towards satisfying basics needs, namely the provision of low-income consumer goods and services. Such items include clothing, furniture, foodstuffs, and motor vehicle repairs. While data on this sub-sector are inadequate, it is one of the fastest growing sectors and a major source of employment in Kenya.
The small and medium-size enterprises SMEs , which form part of the formal economy, are characterized by some degree of specialization. These enterprises manufacture a wide range of items including wood and furniture, metal products, glass and pottery, clothing, and leather products. The items are generally designed to meet the domestic needs of low-income households although some are exported to neighbouring countries.
Production is still largely geared towards consumer goods. Although the manufacturing sector in Kenya is diversified in terms of manufacturing activities, processing of food and other agricultural goods still contributes the largest share of manufacturing GDP, followed by textile and garment, and the refining of crude petroleum, respectively.
For instance, in the contribution from the agro-processing of food commodities and refining of petroleum products to manufacturing value added to GDP was 21 per cent and 15 per cent respectively.
The single most important industrial sub-sector is FBT which forms over 30 per cent of the total manufacturing output in recent years Table 4. In food manufacturing contributed relatively about 22 per cent of manufacturing output, followed by other non-metallic mineral products at about 19 per cent see Table 4.
Food, printing and publishing, rubber and plastic products, and metal product sub-sectors p. Growth theory suggests that nations tend to move from agrarian-led development towards manufacturing or technological development. Thus, the contribution from manufacturing would rise relative to that of agriculture. However, significant complementarity between the two sectors can be noted. The manufacturing output potential may lie in exploiting the valued addition of agricultural products.
The manufacturing sector in Kenya is the third largest by sectoral contribution to GDP The average annual growth rate of real GDP for the manufacturing sector declined from 10 per cent in the period —9 to 4.
It reverted back to 10 per cent and has stagnated at that level for most of the past decade. A combination of factors including the IS strategy, poor weather conditions, import liberalization, and deteriorating infrastructure could explain the slack.
Although there has been a slight upswing in more recent years, the contribution from manufacturing to GDP has remained low, contributing The manufacturing sector in general suffers from low value added compared to Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, and South Africa but higher than that of Uganda and Tanzania Table 4.
The sector is a major source of employment in urban areas and possesses substantial backward and forward linkages to the rest of the economy. Available data show that casual employment as a proportion of total formal sector employment has risen markedly since Informal and precarious forms of employment have gained momentum, as the system evolves towards employment of a diverse pool of irregular, flexible, or casual workers 3 with no formal labour contracts and employment benefits.
Most of these employment effects have been witnessed during a period of intense trade liberalization and openness. This may have been largely undertaken as a cost-cutting strategy, since the latter types of workers do not usually enjoy fringe and other employment benefits such as severance pay, medical allowances, and so on.
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Numerous metals are subjected to anodic oxidation. As a result, one can obtain amorphous barrier-type oxides, crystalline barrier-type oxides or amorphous nanoporous oxides. This paper provides details of sensing techniques and recent advances in the development of NAA-based sensing and biosensing technologies.
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Kenya’s Industrial Development
Agglomeration Economies : savings which arise from the concentration of industries in urban areas and their location close to linked activities. A car factory attracts component suppliers to locate close by, saving on transport costs. Other savings are made in labour and training costs, and the use of the services found in urban areas, e. Balance of Trade : the value of exports minus the value of imports; there may be a trade deficit or trade surplus. Break of Bulk Location: a location such as a coastal port which takes its advantage from a position where there is a forced transfer of raw materials or goods from one form of transport to another. Coastal locations are favoured for iron and steel plants in the UK since the coal and iron ore raw materials are now imported. Brownfield Site : an inner-city derelict site which can be cleared and reused for new industry.
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Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis. Examples include microstructures that have defined turbine blade fabrication and optimization over the past half century, including contemporary electron beam melting fabrication of turbine blade alloys and other novel microstructures and architectures, which result from layer by layer, non-equilibrium melt solidification and epitaxial growth involving powder bed laser and electron beam fabrication. Phase transformations and second-phase formation by rapid cooling in metal and alloy components fabricated by laser and electron beam melting technologies are illustrated for a range of high-temperature materials. Using a range of examples, the advantages of fabricating complex especially porous biomedical and related commercial products are described.
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This chapter reviews the history of manufacturing in Kenya, starting with the period immediately before independence in , discussing industrial policies pursued by different regimes and their impact on Kenyan manufacturing. The chapter concludes with a reflection of factors that have shaped industrial development in Kenya. This strategy was a carryover from colonial policies, and its objectives were rapid growth of industry, reduced balance of payment pressure, more indigenous participation in the sector, and higher productivity and high-income employment. However, the import substitution policy failed to create much-needed employment and its high import content caused major balance of payment problems. The chapter concludes by reflecting on the factors that have shaped industrial development in Kenya.
Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-income intensive than heavy industry and is more raw material -oriented than business -oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods. Most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediates for use by other industries. Light industry facilities typically have less environmental impact than those associated with heavy industry.