Units produce effective things
Many businesses struggle with the costs that they incur from getting the raw materials and producing the finished goods. And while there are different costing methods out there, process costing remains one of the more popular ones. So, is it the right one for you? Or should you be looking for something else? Is it what you should be looking for more productivity?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: TheViper's Tip of the Day - #9: Control Groups on Production
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- Production Efficiency
- Methods of production
- Cycle Time Formulas
- Refurbished Ac Units
- 10 Steps To An Effective Manufacturing Operations Management Strategy
- How to Determine the Unit Costs of Production
- What Is a Per Unit Production Cost?
- No-Nonsense Guide to Measuring Productivity
- 12 Steps From Product Concept to Manufacturing
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Manufacturing involves the conversion of raw materials, usually supplied in simple or shapeless forms, into finished products with specific shape, structure, and properties that fulfill given requirements. This conversion into finished products is accomplished using a great variety of processes that apply energy to produce controlled changes in the configuration properties of materials.
The energy applied during processing may be mechanical, thermal, electrical, or chemical in nature. The results are meant to satisfy functional requirements that were defined during the product design stage.
In the past, design, materials engineering, and manufacturing were often treated as independent engineering specialties. However, modem manufacturing must be cost-effective and timely. This requires that everyone involved in the entire product life cycle work together concurrently to provide a functional product that can be produced efficiently, can be operated reliably, and is easy to maintain and recycle Taguchi, This report identifies a large number of opportunities for improving unit processes.
These can be considered as future options for the concurrent engineering teams. Manufacturing a product or component usually requires the integration of a number of processes. For example, the initial process may involve casting a metal into a mold to produce a desired shape.
Next, the casting may be machined with cutting tools to generate surfaces of specified form. Finally, a surface treatment may be employed to improve the durability of the part. Each of these three individual operations—casting, machining, and surface treatment—is a unit manufacturing process.
For brevity, in this report they will be referred to as ''unit processes. The information and material flows associated with a typical unit process are shown in Figure Raw material or parts from a previous unit process are.
The output consists of parts, which are one step closer to their final form, and of an influence on the environment, such as particulate or noise pollution. The information input and control to the unit process include product data, process information, and process control methodology.
The resource requirements of the unit process are such items as manufacturing equipment, energy, and human resources. A unit process can be considered optimized when the value added in terms of the required configuration and property changes is delivered to the workpiece in the most cost-effective manner from the system as a whole. This involves minimization of factors such as energy use, scrap generation, labor costs, and capital equipment requirements. In addition, rapid response to the needs of customers and a safe working environment are essential.
Sequential unit processes, known as process strings, include cost factors that may result from previous unit processes, such as repair operations required by quality lapses of intermediate process steps. Therefore, many factors must be considered in evaluating cost-effectiveness. A general definition is "minimization of input and resource costs per unit of output product value.
A vast number and a great variety of individual classical and novel unit processes exist. Compilations have been prepared that identify several hundred individual processes; for example, the Welding Handbook, Volume I AWS, It would be of limited usefulness to discuss each process individually in this report. Instead the Unit Manufacturing Process Research Committee has selected a schematic model that identifies five components common to all unit processes.
In this chapter, the committee presents the rationale for a unit process taxonomy containing five major families. These processes are applicable to the full range of workpiece materials: metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites. The end result is a three-dimensional framework composed of process components, process families, and materials.
This scheme provides a concise description of the broad topic of unit processes. Using this framework, the committee determined that there are a few areas of applied scientific and technical knowledge that enable the design and operation of essentially all unit processes.
These areas are referred to here as ''enabling technologies. A schematic model of a unit process is depicted in Figure Energy is delivered to the workpiece material by means of the process equipment and its tooling and is transferred to the workpiece through an interface region between the tooling and the workpiece. Often the interface contains a medium such as a coolant or lubricant. The specific changes in the workpiece configuration and structure usually occur in a localized area of the workpiece, designated as the workzone.
For example, a group of metal removal processes, loosely known as. Each of these processes is distinguished by the tooling design, the interface represented by the cutting fluid , and the equipment design and characteristics i. The workzones of these processes are localized on the workpiece surface and involve shear deformation and fracture as workzone mechanisms, which impart a change in shape to the workpiece.
The wide diversity of unit processes e. The process equipment may belong to the groups of mechanical, thermal, chemical, photonic, and electrical equipment, as well as to combinations of the groups. Tooling elements include cutting tools, grinding media, dies, molds, forms, patterns, electrodes, and lasers. The array of interface materials typical of unit processes includes lubricants, coolants, insulators, electrolytes, hydraulic fluids, and gases. The operative mechanisms found in the workzones of unit processes include deformation, solidification, fracture, conduction, convection, radiation, diffusion, erosion, vaporization, melting, microstructure change, phase transformations, chemical reactions, and many others.
Examples of the five unit process components for six illustrative unit manufacturing processes are presented in Table Each of the five process components—equipment, workpiece, tooling, interface, and workzone—are influenced by the other process components. For example, the interface conditions may govern the rate of energy transfer from the equipment to the workzone and may control the extent of the workzone localization and the uniformity of the changes in the workpiece shape and structure.
In the machining process, variation in the thermal behavior or effectiveness of the cutting fluid may impose thermal distortions in the workpiece or equipment and result in a loss of process precision, manifested in products of poor quality.
Most processes involve several competing workzone mechanisms, with one mechanism overriding the others, at any given instant in the process. The design and selection of the process components and operating conditions are usually predicated on the assumption that a prime mechanism will remain dominant during process operation. In some instances, the process conditions may change so that an alternative mechanism becomes dominant, impacting the process operation and the resulting product quality.
For example, in hot forging of jet-engine disks from elevated temperature alloys, extended contact time between the heated workpiece material and colder forging dies leads to increased heat flow to the dies. As a result, the workpiece material near the die-workpiece interface cools and does not deform as readily as the hotter zones of the workpiece.
The solution to this problem is to control the speed of the forging operation, thus minimizing the contact time of the workpiece and dies and the temperature loss at the workpiece surface. The end result is uniform deformation and uniform microstructure and properties in the forged part. The identification of process components provides a useful overview. However, several hundred individual unit manufacturing processes are commercially used in manufacturing operations.
In order to discuss these processes in more detail, it is necessary to classify them using some common features. Many such classifications or taxonomies have been presented in the relevant technical literature. The taxonomy chosen for this study emphasizes the physical process by which the configuration or structure of a material is changed.
The subsequent discussion of unit processes will be organized according to this taxonomy. Five families of physical processes make up this taxonomy:. The overall significance of a unit process innovation can be determined from several key considerations that are derived from the application context, and which can be structured as criteria. These criteria allow identifiable metrics to be established at the beginning of a development program that can later provide a benchmark to measure progress.
These criteria can also be used to organize a "lessons learned" database that future efforts could access to enhance their chance of success.
The processes in each family of the unit manufacturing process taxonomy can be applied to any material—metal, ceramic, polymer—or to the many composite formulations of these materials with polymers, metals, or ceramics as the matrix material. For example, processes in the consolidation family are used in the production of metals powder compaction , ceramics hot pressing , and polymer composites autoclaving. In addition, each combination of process and material requires consideration of the five process components for successful production.
Figure illustrates this interaction of process families, materials, and process components. The committee examined the many research opportunities that were identified within each family of unit processes in Part II to determine which were the most important to the advancement of unit process technology. The committee concluded that the efficacy of a new unit process, or process improvement, could only be assessed in the context of a specific application, although criteria could be developed to identify promising research opportunities.
This led the committee to synthesize the various research opportunities identified for each family of unit processes. In doing so, it became apparent that a thorough understanding of any unit process with its five process components is dependent on six critical or key technologies that enable the correct design and operation of all processes.
The committee determined that the six enabling technologies are workpiece material behavior, process simulation and modeling, process sensors, process control, process precision and metrology, and equipment design. The six enabling technologies are not independent of each other. For example, the design of process equipment is highly dependent on an understanding of the process precision and metrology, which are, in turn, integral to the sensor selection and process control methodology.
In addition, advanced equipment design efforts often utilize simulation of the equipment operation, including accurate modeling of the workpiece and interface materials behavior during processing. These relationships among the six enabling technologies and the five major process components are depicted schematically in Figure In most cases, product manufacture includes a series of sequential unit processes, referred to as a process stream.
Each individual unit process of the stream has the output of the preceding unit process as its input material and is influenced by the characteristics of this material.
Each product may then be considered the carrier of the history of the unit processes that preceded it. The final product properties, including microstructure, are the summation of the individual unit process experiences, both positive and negative, and define the final part quality and performance in the application. The full benefit from an improvement to a particular unit process that is part of a process stream may not be realizable due to limitations in the processes that precede or follow it.
The removal of such limitations provides additional opportunities for unit process improvements. The different unit processes can be so directly linked together that they effectively form an integrated system. Such systems are discussed in Chapter 8. Advanced unit processes would do little good if they were not applied in manufacturing to improve the competitiveness of products by reducing cost and improving quality IEEE Spectrum, With proper planning, implementation of these new unit processes can result in continual improvement of manufacturing operations NAE, ; Bakerjian, While this report necessarily focuses on manufacturing, the important roles of product design engineering, the enterprise's commitment to excellence, participation by the work force, and so on, cannot be neglected in modernizing manufacturing Clausing, Welding Handbook, Vol I.
Miami, Florida: AWS. Bakerjian, R. Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook.
Methods of production
After developing the operating budget, the next step is a production budget, which tells the business owner or financial manager how many units the firm needs to produce to meet sales requirements as delineated in the sales budget of the firm. The operating budget is one of the two parts of the master budget. The purpose of the operating budget is to describe the income-generating activities of the firm, such as sales, production, and finished goods inventory.
How do you learn how to write good unit tests? Most of the unit tests I see are pretty unhelpful. Once they saw red and green lights, they assumed they were doing it correctly. Bad assumption!
Cycle Time Formulas
Overcoming the challenges of making company-wide manufacturing operations more customer driven needs to start with a clear definition of what success looks like. Defining the strategic goal of having all production centers contributing to a series of company-wide lean manufacturing, supply chain, quality, and production, service and customer satisfaction goals galvanize diverse production locations together. Instead of having to rely on many different, disconnected systems to manage diverse production locations to a common set of goals, manufacturers are adopting company-wide Manufacturing Execution Management MES systems. Planning and scheduling, quality management, inventory optimization, tooling management, preventative and predictive maintenance, and Manufacturing Intelligence are the core functional areas included in an MES today. Across all selling and service channels customers expect real-time responses to their questions in addition to product quality that is world class. How well a manufacturer meets or exceeds these expectations will have as big impact on their future growth opportunities. The core components of this strategy are available in an MES. Increasing customer trust, making on-time order shipments, earning a reputation for high-quality products, achieving traceability, and optimizing production scheduling are all achievable with manufacturing operations management strategies. The following ten steps serve as a guideline for getting started:.
Refurbished Ac Units
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Another acceptable method for determining unit cost under process costing is the first-in, first-out FIFO cost method. Under the FIFO method, we assume any units that were not completed last period beginning work in process are finished before anything else is started. The following table shows the differences between the weighted average method and the FIFO cost method:.
10 Steps To An Effective Manufacturing Operations Management Strategy
Production efficiency is an economic term describing a level in which an economy or entity can no longer produce additional amounts of a good without lowering the production level of another product. Production efficiency may also be referred to as productive efficiency. Productive efficiency similarly means that an entity is operating at maximum capacity. In economics, the concept of production efficiency centers around the charting of a production possibility frontier.
The fundamental financial concept behind unit cost is simple. A business takes all costs and expenditures that it needs to produce a quantity of goods or services, and then divides these amounts by that quantity. In practice, however, things are often more complex. For example, some business costs are constant whether a company sells 1, or 10, units, so there are standard production cost formulas that are commonly used. These allow an "apples to apples" type of comparison that's easier to see. Variable costs are costs that change, depending on the volume of product or service produced.
How to Determine the Unit Costs of Production
The process of bringing a new product to market can seem long and daunting, and might be enough to put you off getting started. By breaking it down into 12 steps, you can see that it could be easier than you think to turn your great idea into a final product. This is where you begin to flesh out your basic idea. Think about what you want your product to be, what its use is, and who would use it. Create sketches and notes of your initial concept.
A few years ago, a major manufacturing-based conglomerate asked a gifted mathematician to join its corporate staff. He devoted many months to the assignment and also tapped the knowledge of […]. Some productivity indexes boast technical elegance and statistical precision—but have little to do with daily management decision making, or even, for that matter, the bottom line. What you need is enough good information to enable you to determine how well your company is taking a pile of raw materials, a bunch of machines, stacks of paperwork, and groups of employees, and turning out useful goods or services.
What Is a Per Unit Production Cost?
A unit cost is a total expenditure incurred by a company to produce, store, and sell one unit of a particular product or service. Unit costs are synonymous with the cost of goods sold and the cost of sales. This accounting measure includes all of the fixed and variable costs associated with the production of a good or service.
No-Nonsense Guide to Measuring Productivity
The costs of production include everything from workers salaries to supplies used to box up the products. Production costs vary according to the level of output and seasonal fluctuations that affect output. Many companies use a per unit production cost to set prices and gauge the performance of the factory or production facility.
Production methods fall into three main categories: job one-off production , batch multiple items, one step at a time for all items , and flow multiple items, all steps in process at once for separate items. Job Production is used when a product is produced with the labor of one or few workers and is rarely used for bulk and large scale production. It is mainly used for one-off products or prototypes hence also known as Prototype Production , as it is inefficient; however, quality is greatly enhanced with job production compared to other methods. Individual wedding cakes and made-to-measure suits are examples of job production.
12 Steps From Product Concept to Manufacturing
Фонтейн тотчас повернулся к стене-экрану. Пятнадцать секунд спустя экран ожил. Сначала изображение на экране было смутным, точно смазанным сильным снегопадом, но постепенно оно становилось все четче и четче. Это была цифровая мультимедийная трансляция - всего пять кадров в секунду. На экране появились двое мужчин: один бледный, коротко стриженный, другой - светловолосый, с типично американской внешностью. Они сидели перед камерой наподобие телеведущих, ожидающих момента выхода в эфир.
- Это что еще за чертовщина? - возмутился Джабба.
- Если оба элемента - уран, то как мы найдем различие между. - А вдруг Танкадо ошибся? - вмешался Фонтейн. - Быть может, он не знал, что бомбы были одинаковые. - Нет! - отрезала Сьюзан.