Storage production high voltage equipment
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Work Safely With High Voltage
There are a bunch of great instructables and other projects on the interwebs that involve high voltage power supplies. Most include a disclaimer that says some variant of "if you have any sense, don't do this project. This instuctable aims to change all of that. High voltage electrical systems can be challenging and fun projects to experiment with. In addition, they are very important in the history of the scientific endeavor.
Many modern systems require or are informed by the technologies and practices of high voltage engineering, from CRT displays to plasma displays, microwave ovens to high power radar, neon lamps to the Sandia Z-machine to pulsed high power lasers.
I know I said no Disclaimers, but Low energy versions of these systems are no more dangerous than what William Gurstelle calls " The Golden Third ," however, and with proper vigilance, they can yield to amateur experimentation and study. You are not comfortable with basic circuit concepts like current, voltage, resistance, capacitance, inductance, ground, current return, Kirchoff's voltage law, short and open circuit, etc.
A good rule is that if you can't calculate the energy stored in a capacitor or inductor, or the power dissipated in a resistance for a given voltage or current, or identify a circuit ground, or calculate what will happen if a circuit component fails short or open, you should acquire that knowledge working on low voltage circuits first.
There are many, MANY 3. Then, come back to high voltage experimentation. You agree not to hold me responsible for your actions, nor for errors or omissions in this brief overview. Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson. Some excellent experiments on the effects of electricity on the human body were performed in the s by Charles Dalziel at UC-Berkeley .
Dalziel performed tests on men lbs and women lbs at differing levels of electrical current, for direct current and alternating current at 60 and 10, Hz.
Damaging effects which can be induced in the body by electric shock or contact with live electrical systems include: 1. Ventricular fibrillation - defined by the New Oxford American Dictionary as " of a muscle, esp. Cardiac asystole - where the heart stops beating.
Combined with ventricular fibrillation this constitutes cardiac arrest. Respiratory arrest. Burns from arc flash and resistive heating of body tissues. Radio frequency burns if radio or microwave frequencies are used.
The onset of these effects is dependent on the electric current magnitude, its character whether DC, AC 60 Hz or higher AC frequency , and the amount of time the electric current is applied.
So, at 0. The amount of voltage needed to produce these effects depends on the contact resistance between the human and the circuit, which is often in the range of ohms, but can be higher with protective equipment, or lower if the skin is broken, or wet, etc. Back to Dalziel, his work showed that the amount of current required to produce pain and muscle contraction depends strongly on weight and frequency, with 60 Hz producing effects at the lowest currents .
So, at 60 Hz, only 10 mA are required to produce strong muscle contraction in a lb person, but about 50 mA are required for DC or 10 kHz current. There are some risks that are particular to high voltage and pulsed shocks . They may cause cardiac asystole rather than ventricular fibrillation, at currents above 1 A. Pulsed shocks with energies above 50 Joules are potentially hazardous. Even at 0.
Pulsed shocks as used with pulsed electrical incapacitation devices can have lasting effects that incapacitate a victim. An additional hazard with high voltage shocks is that the victim need not always contact an energized circuit. Bottom line and Risk Mitigation 1. Work on un-energized circuits if at all possible. Be very careful around live 60 Hz electricity, since it requires very little current to injure.
Your power supply can kill you! Limit the current and energy to the lowest values possible. Lots of interesting experimentation can be done with low stored electrical energy and low currents of a few mA or even microamperes. Make it a habit to ask yourself if you really need this current or energy. Keep your distance from live high voltage circuits.
Since high voltages can breakdown air to connect you to a circuit, keep high voltage circuits in enclosures and behind barricades when in operation. Be sure to properly ground your experiment and your enclosure. Take special care to safely de-energize and ground a circuit before working on it. Know when and how you can end up in the ground path in a circuit and put safeguards in place to eliminate this eventuality.
This will be discussed more in step 4. Never work alone, always have a partner who knows your equipment and the risks and hazards involved.
That way, you have a second set of eyes to insure safety, and someone who can shut off the power and get help if you are injured. Steere, Ed.
The U. High voltage can be AC alternating current - usually sinusoidally varying or DC direct current - a fixed and steady positive or negative voltage or pulsed a non-periodic positive or negative pulse of voltage. The dangers associated with high voltage can vary depending on voltage, the amount of current that can be supplied, the frequency if the source is AC, or the energy stored in a pulse. High voltage in these cases typically occurs at transmission substations, high voltage transmission lines, power generating facilities and industrial or commercial facilities.
These systems are very energetic and very dangerous, but are not typically of use or interest to the experimenter. Also included in this category are high voltage RF systems, like Tesla coils, neon lamp power supplies, or high power radio and microwave systems. Voltage from a low voltage, high frequency AC source is "stepped-up", or brought to high voltage at reduced current and constant power, by a transformer.
The low voltage source could be an RF AC generator like a function generator, or it could be a pulsed AC source like a spark gap Tesla coil primary. Pulsed AC usually involves a resonant LC circuit, which is made to "ring" or oscillate by repeatedly energizing with voltage pulses from a switch like a spark gap. In the case of radiating systems, an amplifier of some sort is normally used to produce the high voltage. If the system is pulsed, the pulse length is also important.
Circuits of this type include high voltage rectifiers, boost circuits, Cockroft-Walton charge pumps, or Van De Graaff generators. DC systems produces a reasonably steady voltage, of positive or negative polarity. They are reasonably steady, in that in almost all cases except for the Van De Graaff some remnant AC rides on top of the DC producing ripple. DC high voltage is very hard to make at extremely high voltages due to corona discharging. Depending on the supply, this may enhance the ripple, or significantly reduce the DC voltage achievable.
Pulsed High Voltage - To overcome the limits of corona discharge in DC high voltage, pulsed high voltage is used. Usually pulsed high voltage is a relatively flat voltage that is zero, switches to steady high voltage of positive or negative polarity, and then switches off.
Pulsed high voltage circuit types include Marx generators , pulse forming networks , and transmission line pulsers. Critical things to know about pulsed high voltage systems include voltage magnitude and polarity, as well as stored energy. Internal impedances and current limits are also good things to know. Most high voltage circuits are fairly simple, using primarily simple, passive components and some command-triggered or self-triggered switches.
Hence, the component types encountered are usually resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, transmission lines, diodes, and spark-gap or possibly solid state switches. There are also field shaping components that reduce the electric field when the circuit is energized to reduce corona discharge and increase breakdown voltage. The most critical components to understand from a safety perspective are those components that can store energy capacitors, inductors, transformers, and transmission lines and surfaces that might be at high voltage, like field shaping components.
Capacitors Capacitors can store substantial energy when charged to high voltage. Given their ability to store charge, capacitors can have significant electric shock potential even when a circuit is de-energized. The effect is that after a capacitor is discharged briefly the dielectric material recharges after the short circuit is removed. This can be a real problem when one capacitor in a bank fails short, and the remaining capacitors discharge through it.
The bleed down resistance should be connected between the capacitors, and not across long runs of series capacitors. Ground each capacitor individually, rather than several capacitors in series. Transmission Lines Transmission lines are essentially distributed runs of capacitance and inductance. Hence, they can also store charge like capacitors. The hazards and safeguards for transmission lines are essentially the same as for capacitors. Inductors and transformers Inductors can store significant energy in magnetic fields when current if flowing through them.
If that current is suddenly removed, voltages across an inductor or across the inductance in a transformer can rise quickly, resulting in breakdown or arcs to other surfaces. Often, this will result in an arc across the switch that interrupted the current in the first place, which may destroy the switch. A high current on an inductor is less common for small experiments.
If a high current inductor is used, and switches in place are likely to fail when current is interrupted, use a resistance across the inductance to limit the voltage to a safe level while the energy dissipates. Diodes and Switches The chief concern here is rupture if currents and voltages are excessive. Hence, these devices and all high voltage systems should reside in an enclosure.
Grounding is a blessing and a curse in high voltage experimentation. It is a blessing in that it can keep us safe, providing a ground to a circuit so that the circuit doesn't use us as its ground path.
It can be a curse, particularly for pulsed and RF systems, as it can be a source of coupling between power source and instrumentation, making measurements difficult or impossible. The issues of instrumentation grounding are beyond this Instructable though maybe a good choice for another but this step will cover some issues on grounding for safe operation.
Good Ground The idea of a "good ground" is a connection to ground that has the least possible inductance, capacitance, or resistance along its path to the earth. Also, a good ground path should be able to tolerate the full short circuit current of the electrical source without failing.
A link to a full text online version can be found on the wikipedia page for the NEC.
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Medium Voltage Systems and Products
High Voltage Products
Based on the response to recent seminars, the topic of medium voltage equipment and installations is one of high interest. This article will provide a brief history of the evolution, as seen by the author, of the industry and give a high-level overview of a few key areas from the product standpoint and terminology. Not so many years ago about 30 , electrical power distribution equipment rated over volts was generally found only in two places, utility systems and large industrial facilities. In utility systems, the power system is owned and operated by the utility. This system consists of generation from some remote location, high voltage transmission lines, and high voltage distribution lines that end at a transformer, serving premises wiring at a utilization voltage less than volts see figure 1.
Discussing the future of energy production and management in a changing world, this book contains the proceedings of the first international conference on Energy Production and Management in the 21st Century — The Quest for Sustainable Energy. Developed societies require an ever increasing amount of energy resources, which creates complex technological challenges. The idea is to compare conventional energy sources, particularly hydrocarbons, with a number of other ways of producing energy, emphasising new technological developments. The challenge in many cases is the conversion of new sources of energy into useful forms, while finding efficient ways of storing and distributing energy.
The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms. Equipment and conductors that carry high voltage warrant particular safety requirements and procedures. In certain industries, high voltage means voltage above a particular threshold see below. High voltage is used in electrical power distribution , in cathode ray tubes , to generate X-rays and particle beams , to demonstrate arcing , for ignition, in photomultiplier tubes , and in high power amplifier vacuum tubes and other industrial, military and scientific applications.
Voltage sags and momentary interruptions have always existed in power systems. In the past, low-voltage UPS and other various methods had been implemented against interruptions and sags. In recent years, however in industrial field, production equipments are becoming very sensitive and occurrence of the interruptions and sags are becoming unacceptable. But in terms of cost effectiveness and complicated machinery maintenance, it is difficult to implement a reliable device in individual equipments. In order to meet the market needs, as a sag protection, Fuji Electric has commercialized the UPSH Series large capacity uninterruptible power supply systems for 3.
Medium Voltage Systems and Products
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UPS for Medium Voltage Distribution UPS 8000H
There are a bunch of great instructables and other projects on the interwebs that involve high voltage power supplies. Most include a disclaimer that says some variant of "if you have any sense, don't do this project. This instuctable aims to change all of that.
The book introduces the reader to the major components of a high voltage system and the different insulating materials applied in particular equipments. During a review of these materials, measurable properties suitable for condition assessment are identified. Analyses are included of some of the insulation fault scenarios that may occur in power equipment. The basic facilities for carrying out tests on the internal and external insulation structures at high and low voltages are described.
Нет, - сказала Мидж. - Насколько я знаю Стратмора, это его дела.
Ответа не последовало. Сьюзан повернулась к Соши. - Выход в Интернет. Здесь есть браузер. Соши кивнула.
Его визуальный монитор - дисплей на жидких кристаллах - был вмонтирован в левую линзу очков. Монокль явился провозвестником новой эры персональных компьютеров: благодаря ему пользователь имел возможность просматривать поступающую информацию и одновременно контактировать с окружающим миром. Кардинальное отличие Монокля заключалось не в его миниатюрном дисплее, а в системе ввода информации.
Пользователь вводил информацию с помощью крошечных контактов, закрепленных на пальцах. Контакты соединялись в определенной последовательности, которую компьютер затем расшифровывал и переводил на нормальный английский.
Сьюзан подняла. На плюшевом диване, закутавшись в махровый халат, грелся на солнце Дэвид и внимательно за ней наблюдал. Она протянула руку, поманив его к. - Без воска? - тихо спросила она, обнимая .