Space product machine parts and products with coatings applied by thermal methods
Materials processing , the series of operations that transforms industrial materials from a raw-material state into finished parts or products. Materials processing by hand is as old as civilization; mechanization began with the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, and in the early 19th century the basic machines for forming, shaping, and cutting were developed, principally in England. Since then, materials-processing methods, techniques, and machinery have grown in variety and number. The cycle of manufacturing processes that converts materials into parts and products starts immediately after the raw materials are either extracted from minerals or produced from basic chemicals or natural substances.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Cricut Iron-On T-Shirt Tutorial - Beginner Friendly!
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There are numerous methods for fabricating composite components. Selection of a method for a particular part, therefore, will depend on the materials, the part design and end-use or application. Here's a guide to selection. Vacuum infusion has found significant application in boatbuilding, because it permits fabricators to infuse entire hulls, deck structures and planar contoured parts in a single step. But aerospace structures, another group of often large parts, are also being developed using vacuum infusion processes.
Fiber reinforcements are placed in a one-sided mold, and a cover typically a plastic bagging film is placed over the top to form a vacuum-tight seal.
The resin typically enters the structure through strategically placed ports and feed lines like these in use during infusion of an outrigger hull for the Ocean Eagle 43 is a light ocean patrol vessel built in by by Chantier Naval H2X La Ciotat, France for shipbuilder CMN Paris and Cherbourg, France. Resin is drawn by vacuum through the reinforcements by means of a series of designed-in channels that facilitate fiber wetout.
Because it does not require high heat or pressure, vacuum infusion can be done with relatively low-cost tooling, making it possible to inexpensively produce large, complex parts. Source: Chantier Naval H2X. HP-RTM still employs RTM's fiber preform, closed mold, press and resin injection system, but the latter is an impingement mixing head like that first developed for polyurethane PU foam applications in the s.
Resin and catalyst are mixed immedately prior to injection at very high pressure, making it possible to mold realtively large parts at fast cycle times, using resin systems with extremely short cure curves. Source: BMW. Source: Globe Machine Co. Register Here. Some methods have been borrowed injection molding from the plastic industry, for example , but many were developed to meet specific design or manufacturing challenges faced with fiber-reinforced polymers.
Composite fabrication processes typically involve some form of molding, to shape the resin and reinforcement. The most basic fabrication method for thermoset composites is hand layup , which typically consists of placing layers, called plies of either dry fabrics, or prepreg fabric pre-impregnated with resin , by hand onto a tool to form a laminate stack.
Resin is applied to the dry plies after layup is complete e. In a variation known as wet layup, each ply is coated with resin and debulked compacted after it is placed. Debulking not only consolidates the layup but also removes air trapped in the resin matrix that would otherwise create undesirable voids air pockets in the laminate that could weaken the composite.
Several curing methods are available. The most basic is simply to allow cure intiated by a catalyst or hardener additive premixed into the resin to occur at room temperature.
Cure can be accelerated, however, by applying heat, typically with an oven, and pressure, by means of a vacuum. For the latter, a vacuum bag, with breather assemblies, is placed over the layup and attached to the tool in similar fashion to that used in debulking , then a vacuum is pulled prior to initiation of cure. The vacuum bagging process here further consolidates the plies of material and significantly reduces voids due to the off-gassing that occurs as the matrix progresses through its chemical curing stages.
Many high-performance thermoset parts require heat and high consolidation pressure to cure — conditions that require the use of an autoclave. Autoclaves, generally, are expensive to buy and operate. Manufacturers that are equipped with autoclaves usually cure a number of parts simultaneously.
When this curing cycle is complete and after parts are demolded, some parts go through a secondary freestanding postcure, during which they are subjected for a specific period of time to a temperature higher than that of the initial cure to enhance chemical crosslink density. Alternative curing methods. Electron-beam E-beam curing has been explored as an efficient curing method for thin laminates. In E-beam curing, the composite layup is exposed to a stream of electrons that provide ionizing radiation, causing polymerization and crosslinking in radiation-sensitive resins.
X-ray and microwave curing technologies work in a similar manner. A fourth alternative, ultraviolet UV curing, involves the use of UV radiation to activate a photoinitiator added to a thermoset resin, which, when activated, sets off a crosslinking reaction.
UV curing requires light-permeable resin and reinforcements. Cure monitoring. An emerging technology is the monitoring of the cure itself. Dielectric cure monitors measure the extent of cure by gauging the conductivity of ions — small, polarized, relatively insignificant impurities that are resident in resins. Ions tend to migrate toward an electrode of opposite polarity, but the speed of migration is limited by the viscosity of the resin — the higher the viscosity, the slower the speed.
As crosslinking proceeds during cure, resin viscosity increases. Other methods include dipole monitoring within the resin, the monitoring of micro-voltage produced by the crosslinking, monitoring of the exothermic reaction in the polymer during cure and, potentially, the use of infrared monitoring via fiber-optic technology see "Monitoring the cure itself. Out-of-autoclave OOA curing is a notable phenomenon gaining momentum in the industry for high-performance composite components.
The high cost and limited size of autoclave systems has prompted many processors, particularly in aerospace, to call for OOA resins that can be cured with heat only in an oven less capital-intensive and less expensive to operate than an autoclave, particularly with very large parts , or at room temperature.
Open contact molding in one-sided molds is a low-cost, common process for making fiberglass composite products.
Typically used for boat hulls and decks, RV components, truck cabs and fenders, spas, bathtubs, shower stalls and other relatively large, noncomplex shapes, open molding involves either hand layup or a semi-automated alternative, sprayup. In an open-mold sprayup application, the mold is first treated with mold release.
If a gel coat is used, it is typically sprayed into the mold after the mold release has been applied. The gel coat then is cured and the mold is ready for fabrication to begin. In the sprayup process, catalyzed resin viscosity of , cps and glass fiber are sprayed into the mold using a chopper gun, which chops continuous fiber into short lengths, then blows the short fibers directly into the sprayed resin stream so that both materials are applied simultaneously.
To reduce VOCs, piston pump-activated, non-atomizing spray guns and fluid-impingement spray heads dispense gel coats and, after gel coat cure, resins in larger droplets at low pressure. Another option is a roller impregnator, which pumps resin into a roller similar to a paint roller.
In the final steps of the sprayup process, workers compact the laminate by hand with rollers. Wood, foam or other core material may then be added, and a second sprayup layer imbeds the core between the laminate skins.
The part is then cured, cooled and removed from the typically reusable mold. Hand layup and sprayup methods are often used in tandem to reduce labor. For example, fabric might first be placed in an area exposed to high stress; then, a spray gun might be used to apply chopped glass and resin to build up the rest of the laminate. Balsa or foam cores may be inserted between the laminate layers in either process.
Sprayup processing, once a very prevalent manufacturing method, has begun to fall out of favor. Federal regulations in the U. Styrene, the most common monomer used as a diluent in thermoset resins, is on both lists.
Because worker exposure to and emission of styrene is difficult and expensive to control in the sprayup process, many composites manufacturers have migrated to closed mold, infusion-based processes, which better contain and manage styrenes. Although open molding via hand layup is being replaced by faster and more technically precise methods as the following makes clear , it is still widely used in the repair of damaged parts, including parts made form other commonly used materials, such as steel and concrete.
Ever-increasing demand for faster production rates has pressed the industry to replace hand layup with alternative fabrication processes and has encouraged fabricators to automate those processes wherever possible. A common alternative is resin transfer molding RTM , sometimes referred to as liquid molding. RTM is a fairly simple process: It begins with a two-part, matched, closed mold that is made of either metal or composite material.
Dry reinforcement typically a preform is placed into the mold and the mold is closed. Resin and catalyst are metered and mixed in dispensing equipment, then pumped into the mold under low to moderate pressure through injection ports, following predesigned paths through the preform. Extremely low-viscosity resin is used in RTM applications, especially with for thick parts, to ensure that the resin permeates the preform quickly and thoroughly before the onset of cure.
Both mold and resin can be preheated, as necessary, for particular applications. RTM produces high-quality parts without the necessity of an autoclave. However, when cured and demolded, a part destined for a high-temperature application usually undergoes postcure.
Most RTM applications use a two-part epoxy formulation. The two parts are mixed just before they are injected. Bismaleimide and polyimide resins also are available in RTM formulations. In Light RTM, low injection pressure, coupled with vacuum, allow the use of less-expensive, lightweight two-part molds or a very lightweight, flexible upper mold. The benefits of RTM are impressive. Generally, the dry preforms and resins used in RTM are less expensive than prepreg material and can be stored at room temperature.
The process can produce thick, near-net shape parts, eliminating most post-fabrication work. It also yields dimensionally accurate complex parts with good surface detail and, unlike open molding techniques, which typically yield a contoured but planar part with A nd B sides finished and unfinished surfaces, respectively RTM can deliver a desired cosmetic finish on all exposed surfaces of complex, three-dimensional components. Finally, RTM significantly cuts cycle times and can be adapted for use as one stage in an automated, repeatable manufacturing process for even greater efficiency, reducing cycle time from what can be several days, typical of hand layup, to just hours — or even minutes.
HP-RTM still comprises a fiber preform, a closed mold, a press and a resin injection system, but the latter is now an impingement mixing head, like that first developed for polyurethane PU foam applications in the s. Sankt Augustin, Germany , Frimo Inc.
In contrast to RTM, where resin and catalyst are premixed prior to injection under pressure into the mold, reaction injection molding RIM injects a rapid-cure resin and a catalyst into the mold in two separate streams.
Mixing, and the resulting chemical reaction, occur in the mold instead of in a dispensing head. Robotic sprayup can be directed to control fiber orientation. A related technology, dry fiber placement, combines stitched preforms and RTM. Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding VARTM refers to a variety of related processes that represent a still fastest-growing molding technology.
VARTM does not require high heat or pressure. For that reason, VARTM operates with low-cost tooling, making it possible to inexpensively produce large, complex parts in one shot. In the VARTM process, fiber reinforcements are placed in a one-sided mold, and a cover typically a plastic bagging film is placed over the top to form a vacuum-tight seal.
Current applications include marine, ground transportation and infrastructure parts. Resin infusion has found significant application in boatbuilding, because it permits fabricators to infuse entire hulls, deck structures and planar contoured parts in a single step.
One resin-infusion twist is the use of two bags, termed double-bag infusion, which uses one vacuum pump attached to the inner bag to extract volatiles and entrapped air, and a second vacuum pump on the outer bag to compact the laminate.
This method has been employed by The Boeing Co. Resin film infusion RFI is a hybrid process in which a dry preform is placed in a mold on top of a layer, or interleaved with multiple layers, of high-viscosity resin film. Under applied heat, vacuum and pressure, the resin liquefies and is drawn into the preform, resulting in uniform resin distribution, even with high-viscosity, toughened resins, because of the short flow distance. Compression molding is a high-volume thermoset molding process that employs expensive but very durable metal dies.
It is an appropriate choice when production quantities exceed 10, parts.
Thermal Coating Paint
Nanotechnology is helping to considerably improve, even revolutionize, many technology and industry sectors: information technology, homeland security, medicine, transportation, energy, food safety, and environmental science, among many others. Described below is a sampling of the rapidly growing list of benefits and applications of nanotechnology. Many benefits of nanotechnology depend on the fact that it is possible to tailor the structures of materials at extremely small scales to achieve specific properties, thus greatly extending the materials science toolkit. Using nanotechnology, materials can effectively be made stronger, lighter, more durable, more reactive, more sieve-like, or better electrical conductors, among many other traits. Many everyday commercial products are currently on the market and in daily use that rely on nanoscale materials and processes:.
ASTM's paint and related coating standards are instrumental in specifying and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of various paints and coatings that are applied to certain bulk materials to improve their surface properties. Guides are also provided for the proper methods of applying these coatings, which also include enamels, varnishes, electroplatings, pigments, and solvents. These paint and related coating standards help paint manufacturers and end-users in the appropriate testing and application procedures for the coating of their concern. Additive Manufacturing Standards.
Diy Thermal Coating
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Broadly accepted test methods, standards, and specifications are of great value to both vendors and purchasers of coating services and coated products. They are essential communication mechanisms for purchasers to describe the critical aspects of required coatings and for coating suppliers to unambiguously understand the requirements. Coatings are only used in gas turbines after a substantial testing and evaluation program by the engine manufacturer and, where appropriate, by the coating vendor. Testing and analysis procedures are usually developed by the engine manufacturer to:. These procedures are developed by engine manufacturers to address specific conditions expected in each manufacturer's engine.
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Guide to Manufacturing Processes for Plastics
Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics. ASM International , - Electronic books - pages.
Here is a brief description of major types of engineering programs found at many universities. Check with the school that you wish to attend to see if they have a specific program that fits your interest. Aerospace engineers design, analyze, model, simulate, and test aircraft, spacecraft, satellites, missiles, and rockets. Aerospace technology also extends to many other applications of objects moving within gases or liquids. Examples are golf balls, high-speed trains, hydrofoil ships, or tall buildings in the wind.
Copper is a mineral and an element essential to our everyday lives. It is a major industrial metal because of its high ductility, malleability, thermal and electrical conductivity and resistance to corrosion. It is an essential nutrient in our daily diet. And, its antimicrobial property is becoming increasingly important to the prevention of infection. It ranks third after iron and aluminum in terms of quantities consumed in the USA.
There are now many different types of freezer available for freezing fish, and freezer operators are often uncertain about which type is best suited to their needs. Three factors may be initially considered when selecting a freezer; financial, functional and feasibility. Financial considerations will take into account both the capital and running cost of the equipment and also projected losses such as product damage and dehydration.
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There are numerous methods for fabricating composite components. Selection of a method for a particular part, therefore, will depend on the materials, the part design and end-use or application. Here's a guide to selection.
Account Options Sign in. Technical Data Digest , Volume 14, Issues Army Air Corps , - Aeronautics, Military. Selected pages Page
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate. The purpose of applying the coating may be decorative, functional, or both. The coating itself may be an all-over coating, completely covering the substrate, or it may only cover parts of the substrate. An example of all of these types of coating is a product label on many drinks bottles- one side has an all-over functional coating the adhesive and the other side has one or more decorative coatings in an appropriate pattern the printing to form the words and images. Paints and lacquers are coatings that mostly have dual uses of protecting the substrate and being decorative, although some artists paints are only for decoration, and the paint on large industrial pipes is presumably only for the function of preventing corrosion.
All Rights Reserved. Coating and lamination are two functional processes which are used make a proper finishing to the textile material. The coating formulation with different textile grade polymer like PVC, PU, acrylic, PTFE are hugely used to make a textile product with multipurpose way like- waterproof protective clothing, tarpaulin, protective clothing, electrical insulation etc. In this current work is related to details of lamination theory, various processes, formulations, application, recent developments of the coating and lamination in the textile field.