Space produce lighting equipment
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Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve practical or aesthetic effects. Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight. Daylighting using windows, skylights, or light shelves is sometimes used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings.
This can save energy in place of using artificial lighting, which represents a major component of energy consumption in buildings. Proper lighting can enhance task performance, improve the appearance of an area, or have positive psychological effects on occupants.
Indoor lighting is usually accomplished using light fixtures , and is a key part of interior design. Lighting can also be an intrinsic component of landscape projects. With the discovery of fire , the earliest form of artificial lighting used to illuminate an area were campfires or torches. Prehistoric people used primitive oil lamps to illuminate surroundings.
These lamps were made from naturally occurring materials such as rocks, shells, horns and stones, were filled with grease , and had a fiber wick.
Lamps typically used animal or vegetable fats as fuel. Hundreds of these lamps hollow worked stones have been found in the Lascaux caves in modern-day France , dating to about 15, years ago. Oily animals birds and fish were also used as lamps after being threaded with a wick. Fireflies have been used as lighting sources.
Candles and glass and pottery lamps were also invented. A major reduction in the cost of lighting occurred with the discovery of whale oil. Gas lighting was economical enough to power street lights in major cities starting in the early s, and was also used in some commercial buildings and in the homes of wealthy people. The gas mantle boosted the luminosity of utility lighting and of kerosene lanterns. The next major drop in price came about in the s with the introduction of electric lighting in the form of arc lights for large space and street lighting followed on by incandescent light bulb based utilities for indoor and outdoor lighting.
Over time, electric lighting became ubiquitous in developed countries. Lighting fixtures come in a wide variety of styles for various functions. The most important functions are as a holder for the light source, to provide directed light and to avoid visual glare. Some are very plain and functional, while some are pieces of art in themselves.
Nearly any material can be used, so long as it can tolerate the excess heat and is in keeping with safety codes. An important property of light fixtures is the luminous efficacy or wall-plug efficiency , meaning the amount of usable light emanating from the fixture per used energy, usually measured in lumen per watt.
A fixture using replaceable light sources can also have its efficiency quoted as the percentage of light passed from the "bulb" to the surroundings.
The more transparent the lighting fixtures are, the higher efficacy. Shading the light will normally decrease efficacy but increase the directionality and the visual comfort probability. Color temperature for white light sources also affects their use for certain applications. The color temperature of a white light source is the temperature in kelvins of a theoretical black body emitter that most closely matches the spectral characteristics of the lamp.
An incandescent bulb has a color temperature around to kelvins; daylight is around kelvins. Lower color temperature lamps have relatively more energy in the yellow and red part of the visible spectrum, while high color temperatures correspond to lamps with more of a blue-white appearance.
For critical inspection or color matching tasks, or for retail displays of food and clothing, the color temperature of the lamps will be selected for the best overall lighting effect.
Lighting is classified by intended use as general, accent, or task lighting, depending largely on the distribution of the light produced by the fixture. Forms of lighting include alcove lighting, which like most other uplighting is indirect. This is often done with fluorescent lighting first available at the World's Fair or rope light , occasionally with neon lighting , and recently with LED strip lighting.
It is a form of backlighting. Soffit or close to wall lighting can be general or a decorative wall-wash, sometimes used to bring out texture like stucco or plaster on a wall, though this may also show its defects as well. The effect depends heavily on the exact type of lighting source used. Recessed lighting often called "pot lights" in Canada , "can lights" or 'high hats" in the US is popular, with fixtures mounted into the ceiling structure so as to appear flush with it.
These downlights can use narrow beam spotlights, or wider- angle floodlights , both of which are bulbs having their own reflectors. There are also downlights with internal reflectors designed to accept common 'A' lamps light bulbs which are generally less costly than reflector lamps. Track lighting , invented by Lightolier ,  was popular at one period of time because it was much easier to install than recessed lighting, and individual fixtures are decorative and can be easily aimed at a wall.
It has regained some popularity recently in low-voltage tracks, which often look nothing like their predecessors because they do not have the safety issues that line-voltage systems have, and are therefore less bulky and more ornamental in themselves. A master transformer feeds all of the fixtures on the track or rod with 12 or 24 volts, instead of each light fixture having its own line-to-low voltage transformer.
There are traditional spots and floods, as well as other small hanging fixtures. A modified version of this is cable lighting , where lights are hung from or clipped to bare metal cables under tension. A sconce is a wall-mounted fixture, particularly one that shines up and sometimes down as well. It is typically a floor lamp but may be wall-mounted like a sconce. Further interior light fixtures include chandeliers, pendant lights, ceiling fans with lights, close-to-ceiling or flush lights, and various types of lamps .
The portable or table lamp is probably the most common fixture, found in many homes and offices. The standard lamp and shade that sits on a table is general lighting, while the desk lamp is considered task lighting. Magnifier lamps are also task lighting. The illuminated ceiling was once popular in the s and s but fell out of favor after the s. This uses diffuser panels hung like a suspended ceiling below fluorescent lights, and is considered general lighting.
Other forms include neon, which is not usually intended to illuminate anything else, but to actually be an artwork in itself. This would probably fall under accent lighting, though in a dark nightclub it could be considered general lighting. In a movie theater , steps in the aisles are usually marked with a row of small lights for convenience and safety, when the film has started and the other lights are off.
Traditionally made up of small low wattage, low voltage lamps in a track or translucent tube, these are rapidly being replaced with LED based versions. Street Lights are used to light roadways and walkways at night. Some manufacturers are designing LED and photovoltaic luminaires to provide an energy-efficient alternative to traditional street light fixtures.
Floodlights can be used to illuminate work zones  or outdoor playing fields during nighttime hours. Beacon lights are positioned at the intersection of two roads to aid in navigation. Sometimes security lighting can be used along roadways in urban areas, or behind homes or commercial facilities.
These are extremely bright lights used to deter crime. Security lights may include floodlights and be activated with PIR switches that detect moving heat sources in darkness. Entry lights can be used outside to illuminate and signal the entrance to a property.
Neon signs are most often used to attract attention rather than to illuminate. Vehicles typically include headlamps and tail lights. Headlamps are white or selective yellow lights placed in the front of the vehicle, designed to illuminate the upcoming road and to make the vehicle more visible. Many manufactures are turning to LED headlights as an energy-efficient alternative to traditional headlamps.
White rear-facing reversing lamps indicate that the vehicle's transmission has been placed in the reverse gear, warning anyone behind the vehicle that it is moving backwards, or about to do so. Flashing turn signals on the front, side, and rear of the vehicle indicate an intended change of position or direction.
In the late s, some automakers began to use electroluminescent technology to backlight their cars' speedometers and other gauges or to draw attention to logos or other decorative elements. Commonly called 'light bulbs', lamps are the removable and replaceable part of a light fixture, which converts electrical energy into electromagnetic radiation.
While lamps have traditionally been rated and marketed primarily in terms of their power consumption, expressed in watts , proliferation of lighting technology beyond the incandescent light bulb has eliminated the correspondence of wattage to the amount of light produced.
Each of these technologies has a different efficacy in converting electrical energy to visible light. Visible light output is typically measured in lumens. This unit only quantifies the visible radiation, and excludes invisible infrared and ultraviolet light. A wax candle produces on the close order of 13 lumens, a 60 watt incandescent lamp makes around lumens, and a watt compact fluorescent lamp produces about lumens, but actual output varies by specific design.
Lighting design as it applies to the built environment is known as 'architectural lighting design'. Lighting of structures considers aesthetic elements as well as practical considerations of quantity of light required, occupants of the structure, energy efficiency, and cost. Artificial lighting takes into account the amount of daylight received in a space by using daylight factor calculations. For simple installations, hand calculations based on tabular data are used to provide an acceptable lighting design.
More critical or complex designs now routinely use computer software such as Radiance for mathematical modeling, which can allow an architect to quickly evaluate the benefit of a proposed design. In some instances, the materials used on walls and furniture play a key role in the lighting effect. For example, dark paint tends to absorb light, making the room appear smaller and more dim than it is, whereas light paint does the opposite.
Other reflective surfaces also have an effect on lighting design. Photometric studies also sometimes referred to as "layouts" or "point by points" are often used to simulate lighting designs for projects before they are built or renovated. This enables architects, designers, and engineers to determine which configuration of lighting fixtures will deliver the amount of light needed.
Other parameters that can be determined are the contrast ratio between light and dark areas. Depending on the building type, client, or safety requirements, different design aspects may be emphasized for safety or practicality.
Specialized software is often used to create these, which typically combine the use of two-dimensional CAD drawings and lighting calculation software i. AGi32 , Visual, Dialux. Lighting illuminates the performers and artists in a live theatre, dance, or musical performance, and is selected and arranged to create dramatic effects.
Stage lighting uses general illumination technology in devices configured for easy adjustment of their output characteristics. Dimmers, colored filters, reflectors, lenses, motorized or manually aimed lamps, and different kinds of flood and spot lights are among the tools used by a stage lighting designer to produce the desired effects. A set of lighting cues are prepared so that the lighting operator can control the lights in step with the performance; complex theatre lighting systems use computer control of lighting instruments.
Motion picture and television production use many of the same tools and methods of stage lighting.
Lighting Ergonomics - Survey and Solutions
Just as no two performances are exactly alike, there is no one proper way to light a stage or performance area. Fortunately, there are simple lighting design techniques that can help even beginners to get proper lighting for their productions. This guide will give you an overview of the jargon, techniques and ideas used to light a performance. The field of entertainment lighting was once limited to theater, film and television, but has grown to include retail, display, photography, education, worship services, themed attractions, corporate events and trade shows. This article provides basic lighting theory and practice that is recognized by the entertainment lighting industry, and simple principles and techniques of entertainment lighting.
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This device uses the cold night sky to generate electricity
This is a community center with a modest number of dimmers and lighting fixtures, but one that has sufficient. Learn how our tools help you design better house lighting plans. Energy efficient and warm light. Light Engine Design Corp. Yet many homes are either under-lit, or resemble an airport landing runway. Founded in , Lighting Design is a lighting store that offers a wide variety of lighting options, from commercial to residential use. Lighting design can create magic in the theatre.
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Bloomsbury Publishing Bolero Ozon. Nick Moran. A practical guide to the art and technique of lighting for the stage, this book explains the complex mixture of craft, collaboration and creativity behind successful lighting design. The designer paints with light - revealing form and composing a living picture from collections of objects and bodies in a given space.
From detailing foundations to designing home theaters, home offices, and other specialty rooms, Architectural Graphic Standards for Residential Construction is a resource that's as efficient as it is comprehensive. You'll find design details that incorporate best construction practices as well as guidelines for state-of-the-art wiring, heating, and cooling systems. In step with current practices, this volume includes the latest guidelines for:. The AIA offers continuing education, conferences, and professional information to its membership and their clients.
Lighting & Light Fixtures
The proper lighting can make all the difference in the world in and around your home. You need good lighting to help you see clearly around the house; have the proper amount of light when reading, watching television or using a computer; ensure you can see well when cooking for your family and provide additional security outside of your home. Because we have low prices, every day, on everything including lighting fixtures and light bulbs it's easy to brighten your home without lightening your bank account.
An action-oriented set of methods, mindsets and thought starters to help innovators design circular solutions that are fit for the future. The New Plastics Economy is an ambitious, three-year initiative to build momentum towards a plastics system that works. Architect Thomas Rau worked with Philips to purchase light as a service. The end result was a bespoke 'pay-per-lux' intelligent lighting system to fit the requirements of the space, at a manageable price. Philips retain control over the items they produce, enabling better maintenance, reconditioning and recovery.
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Our lighting innovations will change how you experience light. Product Connected lighting. Build a smarter city with connected lighting that can reduce energy and maintenance costs, stimulate economic development, and enhance the life of citizen. Optimize your building with smart connected lighting systems from Philips Lighting to save energy and improve operational efficiency while also enhancing employee productivity, and well-being. With the right LED lighting retailers can create a compelling brand identity to engage and inspire shoppers. While software apps over in-store positioning IPS can guide and personalize the shopping experience. You are now visiting our Global professional lighting website, visit your local website by going to the USA website.
CBECS data collection is an inherently complex and time-consuming process. The latest CBECS considers a sample of buildings designed to be representative of all commercial buildings in On-site surveys of the sampled buildings were conducted from April through November of , and energy bill data for those buildings was collected in Starting in and continuing into , EIA published data on the characteristics of the buildings and in mid issued a public use building characteristics file. Data on energy use and expenditures with end-use detail was released in following extensive analysis to relate characteristics of buildings to their energy bills.
This was a standard rig for big rock shows of the s and early 80s. Nowadays, it refers to a rig of around instruments, configured for a concert. But it may include any generic lanterns but not moving lights etc.
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Diy Light Diffuser Box. Express your personality and create a space you look forward to using with indoor lights designed and chosen with you in mind. A cold frame is a structure that traps the sun's heat in order to get a jumpstart on spring seedlings, even in cold temperatures.
By Maria Temming. October 22, at am. It captures energy from the cold night sky. A prototype of the device produced enough electricity at night to power a small light bulb. A bigger version might one day light rooms or charge phones.
Multi-use Space: Spaces that offer a flexible layout, suited to a range of creative uses. This space type often includes everything from open halls to warehouse spaces. Visual Art Studio: These spaces are suited to a range of visual arts. These spaces must have creative practice as their core business. Corporate or standard business co-working spaces are not accepted. Desks, chairs and other infrastructure are provided. Office Space: Any space that can be used for desk-based practice.
Space Type Definitions
The book is expensive but its huge over pages three columns of text on each page all you need to know as a landscape architect is in there. Leonard J. Landscape Architectural Graphic Standards.