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Space plant tobacco

In one, scientists incorporate electronic circuits into plants, such as roses, in a method of storing energy. In the other, they are seeking ways to influence plant functions with bioelectronic devices aiming, for example, to give plants greater resistance to environmental stress. The plant normally secretes this hormone when subjected to stress, for example, during drought or other extreme weather conditions. A solution containing the hormone is also sometimes sprayed onto plants in shops, to keep them fresh longer. The researchers showed that after the hormone was delivered it spread through the leaf tissue, and that the small pores, the stomata, on the leaf surface closed, to prevent the release of water.

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Reimagined Winston-Salem tobacco campus provides space for unique Drama production

Tobacco , common name of the plant Nicotiana tabacum and, to a limited extent, Aztec tobacco N. Various other species in the genus Nicotiana are grown as ornamentals, known collectively as flowering tobaccos.

This article deals with the farming of commercial tobacco from cultivation to curing and grading. Though tobacco is tropical in origin, it is grown throughout the world. Cultivated tobacco N. Aztec tobacco N. The prime requisite for successful tobacco culture is a supply of well-developed healthy seedlings that is available at the proper time for transplanting.

Soil for a plant bed should be fertile and of good tilth and drainage; it must be protected from chilling winds and exposed to the sun. The soil is usually partially sterilized by burning or using chemicals such as methyl bromide now illegal in many countries to control plant diseases , weeds , insect pests, and nematodes. The soil must be finely pulverized and level so that the seed can be lightly covered with soil by rolling or trampling. Uniform distribution of seeds is important.

In warm regions of the world, the germinating seedlings are produced outdoors in cold frames covered with thin cotton cloth or a thin mulch, such as chopped grass used in particular in Zimbabwe , straw, or pine needles. Glass or plastic is used in colder regions, and close attention is given to watering and ventilation. After 8 to 10 weeks the seedlings are 10 to 18 cm 4 to 7 inches in length and are ready for transplanting in the field.

Spacing of plants in the field varies widely according to the type of tobacco. Orinoco strains, used for flue curing, are grown in rows 1. Varieties in the Pryor group are grown to produce the dark air-cured and fire-cured types and are often planted in hills 1 metre 3. Burley and Maryland strains, used for the production of light air-cured tobaccos, may be planted 81 to 91 cm 32 to 36 inches apart or closer. Broadleaf and seed-leaf strains, including the Havana seed, Cuban, and Sumatra varieties, are used for the production of cigars ; they are grown in rows spaced 1 metre 3 feet apart, with individual plants placed at a distance of 38 to 68 cm 15 to 27 inches from each other.

The variety grown for production of Perique is spaced the widest, with rows 1. Aromatic tobaccos, also used for cigars, are spaced in rows 38 to 60 cm 15 to 24 inches apart with 8 to 20 cm 3 to 8 inches between plants in the row. Soil requirements vary widely with the type of tobacco grown, though well-drained soil with good aeration is generally desirable.

Flue-cured, Maryland, cigar-binder, and wrapper types of tobacco are produced on sandy and sandy loam soil. Burley, dark air-cured, fire-cured, and cigar-filler types are grown on silt loam and clay loam soils, with clay subsoils.

The need for fertilizer is determined by the type of tobacco, soil, and climate; nitrogen , phosphorus , and potassium are commonly applied as necessary to prevent symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Large-leaf tobaccos are often topped—that is, the terminal growth is removed—when the plant has reached the desired size, usually at or shortly after flowering. The number of leaves remaining varies widely. Dark air-cured and fire-cured tobaccos may have 10 to 16 leaves, while Burley, flue-cured, Maryland, and cigar types may have 16 to 20 leaves.

After topping, the suckers, or lateral shoots, are removed to increase leaf development, providing increased yields. The work may be done by hand, in which case it must be repeated regularly, or by application of sucker-suppressing chemicals.

Aromatic tobacco culture differs from that of most of the large-leafed tobaccos in that the plants are rarely topped and preferably are grown on soils of low productivity. Common diseases and pests are black root rot, Fusarium wilt , tobacco mosaic virus TMV , bacterial leaf spot, downy mildew , black shank, broomrape , and witchweed.

These may be controlled by sanitation, crop rotation , the use of fungicide and herbicide sprays and fumigants, and breeding of disease-resistant strains.

Some resistant varieties of tobacco have been produced by blending desired characteristics from longflower tobacco N. Common insect pests are green June beetle larvae, cutworms , and flea beetles in the plant bed and hornworms, grasshoppers , flea beetles, cutworms, budworms, and aphids in the field.

The cigarette , or tobacco, beetle damages the stored leaf and sometimes the manufactured product. Insect pests are controlled on the growing crop by using pesticide sprays and dusts, on the stored product by fumigating and trapping. Biological control often is effective.

Fumigation controls nematodes in the field. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Tobacco plant species. See Article History.

Alternative Titles: Nicotiana tabacum, common tobacco, cultivated tobacco. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Load Next Page. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

Full Frame Theater @ American Tobacco Campus

Take a look at the historical moments of the old tobacco processing plant and the story of its re-establishment as a cultural space. The old tobacco processing plant in Cheongju started in as a factory complex where leaf tobacco was stored. It was constructed in the order of the east-side warehouse, redrying room, and old tobacco processing plant. The tobacco plant in Cheongju played a most significant role in the Korean economy.

This material is derived from petroleum and generally ends its life as landfill and or in an incinerator. So why not develop biocomposites that are more environmentally friendly?

Account Options Sign in. Springer Shop Amazon. Life Science studies in space were initially driven by the need to explore how man could survive spaceflight conditions; the effects of being launched un der high accelerations, exposed to weightlessness and radiation for different periods of time, and returned to Earth in safety. In order to substantiate the detailed knowledge of potentially adverse effects, many model experiments were launched using organisms which ranged from bacteria, plants, inverte brates, rodents and primates through to man.

A material derived from tobacco is as strong as wood or plastics

Professor Peter Waterhouse, a plant geneticist at QUT, discovered the gene in the ancient Australian native tobacco plant Nicotiana benthamiana, known as Pitjuri to indigenous Aboriginal tribes. Professor Waterhouse made the discovery while tracing the history of the Pitjuri plant, which for decades has been used by geneticists as a model plant upon which to test viruses and vaccines. Lead researcher Dr Julia Bally said determining the exact species had led researchers on a quest to find out how the plant managed to survive in the wild for such a long period of time. Professor Waterhouse, a molecular geneticist with QUT's Centre for Tropical Crops and Biocommodities , said scientists could use this discovery to investigate other niche or sterile growing environments where plants were protected from disease - and space was an intriguing option. Professor Waterhouse said the team's findings also have implications for future genetic research back here on Earth. So just as nude mice can be really good models for cancer research, "nude" versions of crop plants could also speed up agricultural research," he said. Professor Waterhouse said the fact that the N.

"Magic" native Australian tobacco plant could be key to space-based food production

My grandfather, who smoked cigars since he was 15 years old, always told me that the practice was a solitary act, one that involved great pleasure, and it provided a chance to find yourself. I always thought that it also had a certain dose of melancholy. This mystical communion is almost always conducted in silence, with no words to get in the way of the ritual. And so the tobacco plant begins its growing cycle in soil that is perhaps not very fertile, with little water and a lot of sun, and perhaps with an uncertain prognosis for its survival. Likewise, this is a survival process that has to take place in strictest solitude, without the discomfort of having any other plant nearby, otherwise everything dies.

The show will be staged in part of an 80,plus square foot warehouse in Whitaker Park, a complex North of downtown consisting of cigarette production and warehouse facilities formerly owned by R. Reynolds Tobacco Company.

At the request of many of our customers, we have posted answers to many tobacco growing questions below, we hope you find this useful. Where will tobacco grow? Tobacco will grow in all 50 states, basically anywhere where you have about frost free nights after setting out the tobacco plants.

Helping tobacco plants save water

Scientists at the Queensland University of Technology QUT in Australia have discovered a gene in an ancient Australian native tobacco plant that they say is the key to growing crops in space. The plant, Nicotiana benthamiana, has long been used in labs around the world to test viruses and vaccines due to the fact it has no immune system. Surprisingly, this trait has also led to the plant being extremely resilient, which is where space-based food production comes in.

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The Australian share market has passed the milestone of 7, points for the first time, after the US and China signed a long-awaited trade deal. Queensland scientists have discovered a plant species that has survived , years by sacrificing its immune system to focus on surviving the toughest conditions. Scientists from Brisbane's Queensland University of Technology and the University of Sydney who are researching the history of the Pitjuri tobacco plant say it could solve the dilemma of how to grow crops in space. The plant was picked up by an explorer in the s and taken back to the University of Adelaide and nurtured. It was eventually passed on to other labs around the world, to the point where it is now used in plant molecular labs on every continent. The plant was used to create an Ebola virus experimental antibody trialled on two French aid workers recently. Having now discovered why the plant has these properties, Dr Waterhouse believes there is the opportunity to transfer its resilient traits to other species of plants. One of the imaginative things we've talked about is that in a place like space, where everything is very sterile, you could have higher yielding crops.

And so the tobacco plant begins its growing cycle in soil that is perhaps not very that the Plant Kingdom has been complicit in deciding to give it its own space.

Tobacco , common name of the plant Nicotiana tabacum and, to a limited extent, Aztec tobacco N. Various other species in the genus Nicotiana are grown as ornamentals, known collectively as flowering tobaccos. This article deals with the farming of commercial tobacco from cultivation to curing and grading. Though tobacco is tropical in origin, it is grown throughout the world.

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Show less For centuries, farmers and gardeners have cultivated homegrown tobacco for personal use and sale. Although today the vast majority of tobacco is grown and cured by large corporations, it's still possible to grow your own with a bit of know-how and a lot of patience. Growing tobacco is legal but can become quite a strenuous process, so follow these steps to grow your own tobacco.

Australian tobacco plant could make farms in space possible

Annual plants from the Americas, but will grow as a perennial where there is no hard frost. Originally used for thousands of years in Native American shamanistic ceremonies. Now, by lowering the nicotine content through curing, it has become the most powerfully addictive substance in the world. Easily grown, start seeds like tomatoes in pots indoors, and transplant seedlings out into the garden, spacing feet apart.

Herbicides , in particular by disrupting the photosynthetic activity of plants, are responsible for more or less generalised yellowing of some leaves which afterwards tend to turn white rather quickly.

Will we someday colonize space? Will our children visit other planets? A trip to Mars would take months , and exploring the depths of the galaxy would take even longer. Provision of nutritious food for travelers is a significant obstacle. While stockpiling food is an option, storing enough to last many months strains weight and space limitations in spacecraft — and missions could easily outlast food shelf life.


Tobacco is a relatively easy plant to grow and can be grown as far north as Canada and Alaska with the proper planning and preparation. Tobacco seeds are extremely small Fig. Tobacco seed require warm temperatures for germination of about degrees. Seed should be started indoors weeks before your last frost date. Start by sprinkling the tobacco seed onto the surface of a sterile seed starting mix and lightly water in. DO NOT cover the seed with any soil as they need light for germination and covering can slow down germination time or if covered too deeply the seed won't germinate at all, watering in lightly is all that is needed. Seed will begin to germinate in about days with some tobacco varieties taking a few days longer to begin germination Fig.

The Silence of Tobacco

Вся деятельность в крыле, где размещалась шифровалка, якобы сводилась к попыткам зализать раны после своего фиаско ценой в два миллиарда долларов. Правду знала только элита АНБ - ТРАНСТЕКСТ взламывал сотни шифров ежедневно. В условиях, когда пользователи были убеждены, что закодированные с помощью компьютера сообщения не поддаются расшифровке - даже усилиями всемогущего АНБ, - секреты потекли рекой.

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  1. Faucage

    Something so is impossible