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Production manufacture first and second courses - food concentrates

Matuev, Assoc. Meat and Meat Produce Technology M. Danilov, Prof. Dairy Produce Technology. Commodity Research and Examination of Goods I.

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WHEY PROCESSING

Socioeconomic progress, diseases, and the constantly changing pace of life and lifestyles of consumers worldwide require food to be improved and tailored to meet the needs of purchasers. The produced food is functional, convenient, and enriched. This is achieved, i.

Nowadays, food additives are very widespread in the human diet, but not all of them are synthetic and invasive on human health. All food additives, and their application and dosage, are subject to strict regulations.

The purpose of this work was to investigate which food additives are the most common in our everyday diet and how they affect our health. The history of food additives goes back to ancient times.

As great civilisations developed, populations grew and so did the demand for food. In ancient Egypt, where the climate was not conducive to food storage, especially due to the heat, people started looking for ways to extend the usability life of products. The earliest preservatives included sulphur dioxide E , acetic acid E , and sodium nitrite E , while turmeric E and carmine E were among the first colours. Food preservation was also of immense importance during numerous armed conflicts.

Both during the Napoleonic wars in Europe and during the American Civil War, seafarers and soldiers needed food. Limited access to fresh food at the front motivated the armed forces to transport their food with them.

This is when cans were introduced for food preservation purposes. In the subsequent centuries, ammonium bicarbonate Eii , also known as salt of hartshorn, used as a rising agent for baked goods, and sodium hydroxide solution E , used in the production of salty sticks, rose to prominence [ 1 , 2 ]. The nineteenth century saw considerable advancements in the fields of chemistry, biology, and medicine. A name that needs to be mentioned here is Louis Pasteur, a French scientist, who studied microbiology, among other things.

He was the first to prove that microorganisms were responsible for food spoilage. At the same time, new chemical compounds were discovered that were able to inhibit the growth of microbes. Some substances, such as picric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and their salts, often had disastrous consequences when added to food. Insufficient knowledge of toxicology resulted in consumer poisonings and even deaths [ 1 , 3 ].

At that time, food preservation was the number one priority, which was achieved, for instance, by using salicylic acid, formic acid E , benzoic acid E , boric acid E , propionic acid E , sorbic acid E and its potassium salt E , and esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Later, food concerns also focused on improving the organoleptic properties of their products and started to enhance food with colours, flavours, and sweeteners, without first researching their effects on human health.

For example, such practices involved the use of synthetic colours used in fabric dyeing. This desire to make money on beautiful-looking products led to adulterating food with copper and iron salts, which have a negative impact on the human body. It was as late as in that the United States studied 90 of the synthetic colours used at that time for food dyeing and found only 7 to be acceptable for further use.

Detailed studies and strict regulations on the use of food additives were created almost a century later [ 1 , 4 ]. In , these organisations established a special agenda—the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The Commission has prepared and updated the Codex Alimentarius, which is not a legal Act per se, but provides a reference for standards on raw materials and food products, acceptable contamination levels, hygienic processing, research methods, and food additives for almost all countries worldwide [ 5 ].

In the European Union, the body responsible for improving human health protection and food safety risk mitigation, as well as for taking care of purchaser interests, is the European Food Safety Authority EFSA.

It is a scientific agency established in pursuant to the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January European legislation is based on the Codex Alimentarius but conducts its own complementary research. Therefore, the list of food additives permitted by the European Union is different from the American one [ 5 ]. It specifies the requirements applicable to food and nutrition, concerning product labelling, hygienic conditions throughout the production process, and product replacement rules, as well as requirements concerning the use of food additives.

The key document that pertains specifically to food additives is the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December on food additives. A food additive additional substance is any substance that is not a food in itself or an ingredient in food, but when added to a product for processing purposes, it becomes part of the food [ 5 ].

The following are not considered to be food additives: ingredients in food or chemicals to be used in other products, i. The law forbids the use of food additives in unprocessed food, honey, non-emulsified oils and fats of an animal or vegetable origin, butter, milk, fermented milk products unflavoured, with living bacteria cultures , natural mineral and spring water, unflavoured leaf tea, coffee, sugar, dry pasta, and unflavoured buttermilk [ 5 ].

Any marketed additive must comply with the requirements of the European Food Safety Authority, i. Producers are also required to include information on any food additives on product labelling [ 6 , 7 ]. EU legislation has approved approximately food additives for use.

The primary objectives behind the use of additives are to extend the shelf life and freshness of products, prevent product quality impairment, make the product more attractive to customers, achieve the desired texture, ensure specific product functionality, facilitate production processes, reduce production costs, and enrich the nutritional value of products. In order to harmonise, effectively identify any additives, and ensure smooth exchange of goods, each food additive has its own, standardised, code.

There are several food additive classifications. One is based on the regulation and differentiates between colours approx. Additional substances can also be categorised on the basis of code numbers: Colours—E—E Stabilising, thickening, emulsifying, coating, and bulking substances—E—E Food additives can also be divided into four major groups, based on their processing purpose.

These are substances that prevent food spoilage, those which improve sensory features, firming additives and excipients. The most numerous group among additives that slow down food spoilage are preservatives. These are either natural or synthetic chemical compounds added to food to restrict as much as possible the biological processes that take place in the product, e. In food products, preservatives change the permeability of cytoplasmic membranes or cell walls, damage the genetic system, and deactivate some enzymes.

Food is preserved using antiseptics or antibiotics. The former are synthetically produced simple compounds that often have natural correlates, and they make up no more than 0. Antibiotics, or substances produced by microorganisms, are used in very small, yet effective, doses. The effectiveness of preservatives depends primarily on their effect on a specific type of microorganism, which is why it is vital to select the appropriate preservative based on the microbes found in the product bacteria, mould, or yeast.

Other factors that determine the effectiveness of preservatives include the pH value a low pH is desirable , temperature, the addition of other substances, and the chemical composition of the product. Preservatives constitute an alternative to physical and biological product freshness stabilisation methods, such as drying, pickling, sterilising, freezing, cooling, and thickening. Consumer objections concerning the widespread use of chemical preservatives and their effects on human health have motivated producers to develop new food preservation procedures.

These include radiation, packaging, and storing products in a modified atmosphere, using aseptic technology. Products that are most commonly preserved include ready-made dishes and sauces, meat and fish products, fizzy drinks, and ready-made deserts [ 9 , 10 ].

Other substances used as preservatives are acids and acidity regulators. These substances lower the pH level and slow down the growth of enzymes, which hampers the development of microbes. They are used mainly in the production of marinades. Acids and acidity regulators are also used to enhance flavour usually in fruit or vegetable products, or beverages, to bring out their sour taste or to facilitate gelatinisation and frothing during food processing [ 11 , 12 ].

Not only microorganisms but also oxygen is responsible for food spoilage. Products such as oils, fats, and dry goods flour, semolina oxidise when they come into contact with atmospheric oxygen.

Fat oxidisation rancidification occurs in oils, lard, flour, and milk powder. The browning of fruit, vegetables, and meat, on the other hand, is the result of non-fat substance oxidisation. These oxidisation processes can be slowed down or eliminated completely using antioxidants. There are natural and synthetic antioxidants and synergists. These are used to stabilise fats used to fry, e.

The most common natural antioxidants are tocopherols, i. Other antioxidants include phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids. Synthetic antioxidants are more potent and resistant to processing.

Synergists are substances that support and extend the functioning of antioxidants. They can form complexes with heavy metal ions, which retard the oxidisation process. The most frequently used synergists are EDTA, citric acid, and ascorbic acid. Antioxidants do not pose a risk to human health.

In fact, they can be beneficial. Antioxidants prevent unfavourable interactions between free radicals and tissue and slow down ageing processes and the development of some diseases [ 12 , 13 ]. In order to extend the freshness of consumer goods, products are also packaged in a modified atmosphere. As part of this process, the oxygen content inside the packaging is reduced and replaced with other gases , such as nitrogen, argon, helium, and hydrogen.

Furthermore, products in the form of aerosol sprays, such as whipped cream, have nitrous oxide, butane, or propane added to them. All these gases are also food additives with their own E codes [ 5 , 11 ]. The organoleptic properties of consumer goods are very important to consumers. Visual appeal is considered to be as important as taste or smell.

This is where food colours come into play. These are used to add colour to transparent products e. In order to add colour to a product, manufacturers use natural, nature-identical, synthetic, and inorganic colours.

Natural colours are produced from edible plant parts fruits, flowers, roots, leaves and from animal raw materials, such as blood, chitinous exoskeletons of insects, and muscle tissue. New technologies have also made it possible to obtain colours from algae, fungi, and mould. Natural colouring substances include carotenoids that provide a spectrum of yellow and orange colours carrot, citrus fruit skin , flavonoids that give products blue and navy-blue colours grapes, currants, chokeberry, elder , betalains that give products a red colour beetroot, capsicum , and chlorophyll that lends green colours salad, parsley , as well as riboflavin vitamin B 2 , curcumin, and caramel.

Natural colours are desirable for consumers, as they do not show any negative effects on health. However, a significant drawback to using natural colours is that they are very sensitive to environmental factors, such as pH, ambient temperature, oxygen content, or sun exposure, which is why they are not durable when it comes to processing and storage.

Moreover, the cost of obtaining such colouring substances is rather high. The list of additives contains 17 natural colours, and their market share in was approx. Synthetic food colours are very competitive compared to natural ones. They offer a wide spectrum of colours, including those that are not available in nature, provide strong colouring, and are resistant to environmental factors, so they do not fade during processing.

Juice industry regulations to concentrate on

Among the characteristics of a company that shape corporate and therefore manufacturing strategy are its dominant orientation market or product , pattern of diversification product, market, or process , attitude toward growth acceptance of low growth rate , and choice between competitive strategies high profit margins versus high output volumes. Once the basic attitudes or priorities are established, […]. Once the basic attitudes or priorities are established, the manufacturing arm of a company must arrange its structure and management so as to reinforce these corporate aims. When they are operating smoothly, they are almost invisible. But manufacturing is getting increasing attention from business managers who, only a few years ago, were preoccupied with marketing or financial matters.

The beverage industry consists of two major categories and eight sub-groups. The non-alcoholic category is comprised of soft drink syrup manufacture; soft drink and water bottling and canning; fruit juices bottling, canning and boxing; the coffee industry and the tea industry. Alcoholic beverage categories include distilled spirits, wine and brewing.

Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food , or of one form of food into other forms. Food processing includes many forms of processing foods, from grinding grain to make raw flour to home cooking to complex industrial methods used to make convenience foods. Primary food processing is necessary to make most foods edible, and secondary food processing turns the ingredients into familiar foods, such as bread. Tertiary food processing has been criticized for promoting overnutrition and obesity, containing too much sugar and salt, too little fiber, and otherwise being unhealthful in respect to dietary needs of humans and farm animals.

Florida Food Products Through the Decades

Manufacturers of packaged juice need state licensing, production in a commercial kitchen, correct labeling and most likely a food safety plan along with a Process Authority Review to sell their product in Michigan. The license you obtain covers your production at a licensed commercial kitchen. The kitchen itself will require seperate licensing in order to be used for commercial purposes. This will determine what is needed to bring a kitchen space up to code to meet the regulatory requirements for commercial production. All shelf stable products need to undergo a Process Authority Review PAR testing to determine additional processing requirements needed for licensing. Producers of low-acid or acidified foods will have to attend a two-day Better Process Control School and register their product with the Federal Drug Administration. The HACCP plan systematically identifies threats for possible contamination points and institutes a procedure to improve food safety within a production process. If all this seems overwhelming, do not fret!

Wholesale Concentrates

Socioeconomic progress, diseases, and the constantly changing pace of life and lifestyles of consumers worldwide require food to be improved and tailored to meet the needs of purchasers. The produced food is functional, convenient, and enriched. This is achieved, i. Nowadays, food additives are very widespread in the human diet, but not all of them are synthetic and invasive on human health. All food additives, and their application and dosage, are subject to strict regulations.

According to our customers' individual desires and demands, we offer a large variety of fruit and vegetable products for further processing into various final products.

The invention relates to a process for the production of a liquid coffee concentrate that has an improved storage stability at ambient temperature. The production and sales of liquid coffee, e. Up to now, such liquid coffee products are mostly available in a frozen form, and sometimes refrigerated. Non-refrigerated storage would decrease supply chain costs.

Gmp Plant Layout

For questions regarding this document, contact Michael E. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and does not operate to bind FDA or the public. You can use an alternative approach if the approach satisfies the requirements of the applicable statutes and regulations.

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Seed Processing Techniques Ppt

Please let us know how we are doing by completing our customer service survey. Federal Contract Comments. Report Website Issues. The rules do not allow any type of manufacturing or holding of food for distribution in any areas used as living or sleeping quarters unless it is completely partitioned from your home. Produce a food product or a component of a food and either package it for customer self-serve or sell to another business that will serve to customers or resale i.

The courses are SCORM / Tin Can API compliant so they can be incorporated into Maintenance, and Good Manufacturing Practices, Second Edition provides Current food good manufacturing practices (GMPs) are published in Title 21 of The layout of current food processing plant was first obtained from Homestyle.

If this is available plant the coffee face down in the pergamino. Since the last revision of food Good Manufacturing Practices GMPs almost 20 years ago, the food manufacturing industry has seen many changes, including newly recognized pathogens, more. Generally, all the small-scale processors use the hydraulic press, and hand spindle press with a few of them using the. Certified Seed Price for Kharif

EP2739160A1 - Process for the production of a liquid coffee concentrate - Google Patents

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Russky Product

Food manufacturers must make sure that their products are safe and do not make people ill. Companies must have a food safety plan and observe the food safety regulations. The government checks that they comply with these requirements. In recent years there have been various scandals involving fraudulent food.

Whey, the liquid residue of cheese, casein and yoghurt production, is one of the biggest reservoirs of food protein available today.

To understand the principles of fishmeal and oil manufacture, it is necessary to consider the raw material as composed of three major fractions: solids fat-free dry matter , oil and water. The purpose of the process is to separate these fractions from each other as completely as possible, with the least possible expense and under conditions rendering the best possible products. Fish can be reduced to meal and oil in a number of ways. Common to all methods of practical importance are the following processing steps: heating, which coagulates the protein, ruptures the fat depots and liberates oil and physico-chemically bound water; pressing or occasional centrifugation , which removes a large fraction of the liquids from the mass; separation of the liquid into oil and water stickwater.

3. THE PROCESS

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Food processing

And if you bring home some fruit or vegetables and want to can, freeze, make jam, salsa or pickles, see this page for simple, reliable, illustrated canning, freezing or preserving. Each variety of fruit and vegetables requires a dedicated solution. Juice can be made out of fresh fruit, vegetables, concentrate, frozen fruit paste or aseptic mix. We offer bases for dairy and non-dairy yogurts, ice creams, smoothies, kefirs, beverages, cottage cheeses, toppings, parfaits, fruit based frozen desserts, shakes.

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  1. Samuzahn

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