Produce ware lubricating equipment and filtering devices
Metal Processing and Metal Working Industry. General Profile. Smelting and Refining Pekka Roto. Copper, Lead and Zinc Smelting and Refining. Aluminium Smelting and Refining Bertram D. Gold Smelting and Refining I.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: P-80 Lubricant Insertion Force - Mecmesin Test
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NCBI Bookshelf. Working safely with hazardous chemicals requires proper use of laboratory equipment. Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are essential parts of this activity. Many of the accidents that occur in the laboratory can be attributed to improper use or maintenance of laboratory equipment. This chapter discusses prudent practices for handling equipment used frequently in laboratories. The most common equipment-related hazards in laboratories come from devices powered by electricity devices for work with compressed gases, and devices for high or low pressures and temperatures.
Other physical hazards include electromagnetic radiation from lasers and radio-frequency generating devices. Seemingly ordinary hazards such as floods from water-cooled equipment, accidents with rotating equipment and machines or tools for cutting and drilling, noise extremes, slips, trips, falls, lifting, and poor ergonomics account for the greatest frequency of laboratory accidents and injuries.
Understandably, injuries to the hands are very common in the laboratory. Care should be taken to use appropriate gloves when handling laboratory equipment to protect against electrical, thermal, and chemical burns, cuts, and punctures.
The use of water as a coolant in laboratory condensers and other equipment is common practice. Although tap water is often used for these purposes, this practice should be discouraged. In many localities conserving water is essential and makes tap water inappropriate. In addition, the potential for a flood is greatly increased. Refrigerated recirculators can be expensive, but are preferred for cooling laboratory equipment to conserve water and to minimize the impact of floods.
To prevent freezing at the refrigeration coils, using a mixture of water and ethylene glycol as the coolant is prudent. Spills of this mixture are very slippery and must be cleaned thoroughly to prevent slips and falls. Most flooding occurs when the tubing supplying the water to the condenser disconnects. Hoses can pop off when building water pressure fluctuates, causing irregular flows, or can break when the hose material has deteriorated from long-term or improper use.
Floods also result when exit hoses jump out of the sink from a strong flow pulse or sink drains are blocked by an accumulation of extraneous material. Proper use of hose clamps and maintenance of the entire cooling system or alternative use of a portable cooling bath with suction feed can resolve such problems.
Plastic locking disconnects can make it easy to unfasten water lines without having to unclamp and reclamp secured lines. Some quick disconnects also incorporate check valves, which do not allow flow into or out of either half of the connection when disconnected. This feature allows for disconnecting and reconnecting with minimal spillage of water. To reduce the possibility of overpressurization of fittings or glassware, consider installing a vented pressure relief device on the water supply.
Interlocks are also available that shut off electrical power in the event of loss of coolant flow and are recommended for unattended operations. Electrically powered equipment is used routinely for laboratory operations requiring heating, cooling, agitation or mixing, and pumping.
Electrically powered equipment found in the laboratory includes fluid and vacuum pumps, lasers, power supplies, both electrophoresis and electrochemical apparatus, x-ray equipment, stirrers, hot plates, heating mantles, microwave ovens, and ultrasonicators. Attention must be paid to both the mechanical and the electrical hazards inherent in using these devices.
High-voltage and high-power requirements are increasingly prevalent; therefore prudent practices for handling these devices are increasingly necessary. Electric shock is the major electrical hazard.
Although relatively low current of 10 mA poses some danger, 80 to mA can be fatal. In addition, if improperly used, electrical equipment can ignite flammable or explosive vapors. Most of the risks can be minimized by regular proper maintenance and a clear understanding of the correct use of the device. Before beginning any work, all personnel should be shown and trained in the use of all electrical power sources and the location of emergency shutoff switches.
Information about emergency procedures can be found in section 7. Particular caution must be exercised during installation, modification, and repair, as well as during use of the equipment. Trained laboratory personnel should also consult state and local codes and regulations, which may contain special provisions and be more stringent than the NEC rules. All repair and calibration work on electrical equipment must be carried out by properly trained and qualified personnel.
Before modification, installation, or even minor repairs of electrical equipment are carried out, the devices must be deenergized and all capacitors discharged safely. All new electrical equipment should be inspected on receipt for a certification mark. If the device does not bear one of these certification marks, the device should be inspected by an electrician before it is put into service.
Each person participating in any experiment involving the use of electrical equipment must be aware of all applicable equipment safety issues and be briefed on any potential problems. Trained laboratory personnel can significantly reduce hazards and dangerous behavior by following some basic principles and techniques: checking and rechecking outlet receptacles section 7.
All V outlet receptacles in laboratories should be of the standard design that accepts a three-prong plug and provides a ground connection. Replace two-prong receptacles as soon as feasible, and add a separate ground wire so that each receptacle is wired as shown in Figure 7.
Representative design for a three-wire grounded outlet. The design shown is for A, V service. The specific design will vary with amperage and voltage. It is also possible to fit a receptacle with a ground-fault circuit interrupter GFCI , which disconnects the current if a ground fault is detected.
GFCI devices are required by local electrical codes for outdoor receptacles and for selected laboratory receptacles located less than 6 ft 1. These devices differ in operation and purpose from fuses and circuit breakers, which are designed primarily to protect equipment and prevent electrical fires due to short circuits or other abnormally high current draw situations.
Certain types of GFCIs cause equipment shutdowns at unexpected and inappropriate times; hence, their selection and use need careful planning. Be aware that GFCIs are not fail-safe devices. They significantly reduce the possibility of fatal shock but do not entirely eliminate it. Locate receptacles that provide electric power for operations in laboratory chemical hoods outside the hood. This location prevents the production of electrical sparks inside the chemical hood when a device is plugged in or disconnected, and it also allows trained laboratory personnel to disconnect electrical devices from outside the hood in case of an accident.
Cords should not be routed in such a way that they can accidentally be pulled out of their receptacles or tripped over. Simple inexpensive plastic retaining strips and ties can be used to route cords safely.
For laboratory chemical hoods with airfoils, route the electrical cords under the bottom airfoil so that the sash can be closed completely. Most airfoils are easily removed and replaced with a screwdriver. Fit laboratory equipment plugged into a V or higher receptacle with a standard three-conductor line cord that provides an independent ground connection to the chassis of the apparatus see Figure 7. Ground all electrical equipment unless it is double-insulated.
This type of equipment has a two-conductor line cord that meets national codes and standards. The use of two-pronged cheaters to connect equipment with three-prong grounded plugs to old-fashioned two-wire outlets is hazardous and should be prohibited. Standard wiring convention for V electric power to equipment. Use a standard three-conductor extension cord of sufficient rating for the connected equipment with an independent ground connection.
In addition, good practice uses only extension cords equipped with a GFCI. Install electrical cables properly, even if only for temporary use, and keep them out of aisles and other traffic areas.
Install overhead racks and floor channel covers if wires must pass over or under walking areas. Do not intermingle signal and power cables in cable trays or panels. Special care is needed when installing and placing water lines used, for example, to cool equipment such as flash lamps for lasers so that they do not leak or produce condensation, which can dampen power cables nearby. Equipment plugged into an electrical receptacle should include a fuse or other overload protection device to disconnect the circuit if the apparatus fails or is overloaded.
This overload protection is particularly useful for equipment likely to be left on and unattended for a long time, such as variable autotransformers e. If equipment does not contain its own built-in overload protection, modify it to provide such protection or replace it with equipment that does. Overload protection does not protect the trained laboratory personnel from electrocution but does reduce the risk of fire.
Laboratory personnel should be certain that all electrical equipment is well maintained, properly located, and safely used. To do this, review the following precautions and make the necessary adjustments prior to working in the laboratory:.
All laboratories should have access to a qualified technician who can make routine repairs to existing equipment and modifications to new or existing equipment so that it will meet acceptable standards for electrical safety. When operating or servicing electrical equipment, be sure to follow basic safety precautions as summarized below.
Unless laboratory personnel are specially trained to install or repair high-current or high-voltage equipment, reserve such tasks for trained electrical workers. The following reminders are included for qualified personnel:. The use of water aspirators is discouraged. Their use in filtration or solvent-removal operations involving volatile organic solvents presents a hazard that volatile chemicals will contaminate the wastewater and the sewer, even if traps are in place.
Water and sewer contamination may result in violation of local, state, or federal law. These devices also consume large volumes of water, present a flooding hazard, and can compromise local conservation measures. Distillation or similar operations requiring a vacuum must use a trapping device to protect the vacuum source, personnel, and the environment.
This requirement also applies to oil-free Teflon-lined diaphragm pumps. Normally the vacuum source is a cold trap cooled with dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Even with the use of a trap, the oil in a mechanical vacuum trap can become contaminated and the waste oil must be treated as a hazardous waste. Vent the output of each pump to a proper air exhaust system.
This procedure is essential when the pump is being used to evacuate a system containing a volatile toxic or corrosive substance. Failure to observe this precaution results in pumping the untrapped substances into the laboratory atmosphere.
Scrubbing or absorbing the gases exiting the pump is also recommended. Even with these precautions, volatile toxic or corrosive substances may accumulate in the pump oil and thus be discharged into the laboratory atmosphere during future pump use. Avoid this hazard by draining and replacing the pump oil when it becomes contaminated. Follow procedures recommended by the institution's environmental health and safety office for the safe disposal of pump oil contaminated with toxic or corrosive substances.
General-purpose laboratory vacuum pumps should have a record of use to prevent cross-contamination or reactive chemical incompatibility problems. Belt-driven mechanical pumps must have protective guards.
Causes of Wear Metal in Engine Oil
We are happy to share our many years of experience in the field of filtration and air pulltion control with our customers. This is reflected in the constant improvement of our products. With our wide and flexible product range, we can offer you a solution that is ideally suited to your needs. Our series products , as well as specially adapted special constructions, meet the highest quality requirements and guarantee reliability.
Belt filter presses are also used in the production of apple juice, cider and winemaking. The system takes a sludge or slurry as a feed, and separates it into a filtrate and a solid cake. The belt filter is mainly used for dewatering  of sludge and slurry and juice extraction from apples, pears and other fruits, as well as grapes for winemaking, etc. Belt filters are used both municipally and industrially in a range of areas including urban sewage and wastewater treatment , metallurgy and mining, steel plants, coal plants, breweries, dyeing, tanneries, as well as chemical and paper factories.
Archived - Guide to Food Safety
Once such expert is Mark Kavanaugh, who has over 42 years of experience in large manufacturing operations, and is currently responsible for coordinating the lubrication of thousands of pieces of rotating equipment in a refinery. Pumps are an integral part of any manufacturing plant. Most operations have to move fluids from point to point. Some large end-users, like chemical plants and refineries, have thousands of pumping systems. Pump operation and maintenance should never be taken for granted. Table I lists various pump types classified as either positive displacement or centrifugal. This article will focus on centrifugals. Centrifugal pump considerations The centrifugal pump family includes radial-flow types the most common and axial-flow types. Standardized dimensions for ANSI pumps include:.
This page was archived due to the coming into force of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations. Archived information is provided for reference, research or record-keeping purposes only. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. For current information visit Food.
Before deciding to use a respirator, put in other practical control measures such as local exhaust ventilation to eliminate or minimise contaminants in the air. Never use an air-purifying respirator in an area where oxygen levels may be low, such as a confined space , or where the level of airborne contaminants is immediately dangerous to life or health. Respirators come in different shapes and sizes.
This article attempts to detail the traditional division into types of maintenance, noting that this division, apart from a simple academic concept or training purposes, it is not more useful. It is not possible to determine that a particular machine, the type of maintenance to be applied is one of the traditional corrective, scheduled, predictive, etc. It is more practical to apply another concept: the maintenance model.
When two surfaces come in contact with one another, a fluid must be injected to separate them. They are produced by refining heavy fractions of crude oil remaining crude oil parts after refining hydrocarbons such as gas, fuel oil or kerosene. The viscosity of these products is remarkably stable regardless of the temperature. This characteristic is a major advantage compared to mineral oil bases, which require additives in order to improve viscosity in higher quantities. They are also more resistant to oxidation, from where an increased longevity which requires less-frequent oil changes.
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Surprisingly, the last three oil analysis reports have shown dramatic increases in iron and tin at values up to and 80 parts per million. Do you have any thoughts as to what could be causing these increases? Generally, there are two primary causes of high metal levels in oil analysis. The first is related to the sampling procedures. The second is associated with the actual wear metal levels.
Table of Contents
This article provides a basic definition and understanding of the major wear modes or mechanisms based around the ISO Several other modes of wear that occur in gears, journal bearings, hydraulic pumps and pistons - but don't occur in rolling bearings - will be discussed. Wear mechanisms can also be thought of as occurring in two separate categories: contact and noncontact modes.
TYPES OF MAINTENANCE
Стратмор наморщил лоб и прикусил губу. Мысли его метались. Он, конечно, с легкостью мог набрать код лифта и отправить Сьюзан домой, но она нужна ему .
Число возможных комбинаций приблизилось к 10 в 120-й степени - то есть к единице со 120 нулями. Определить ключ стало столь же математически нереально, как найти нужную песчинку на пляже длиной в три мили.
Спереди на него быстро надвигалась стена. Такси все еще продолжало крутиться, и в ожидании столкновения он сжался в комок. Раздался оглушающий треск гофрированного металла. Но Беккер не ощутил боли. Неожиданно он оказался на открытом воздухе, по-прежнему сидя на веспе, несущейся по травяному газону.
Компьютер однократно пискнул. На экране высветилось: СЛЕДОПЫТ ОТПРАВЛЕН Теперь надо ждать. Сьюзан вздохнула. Она чувствовала себя виноватой из-за того, что так резко говорила с коммандером. Ведь если кто и может справиться с возникшей опасностью, да еще без посторонней помощи, так это Тревор Стратмор.
Basic Wear Modes in Lubricated Systems
Цель была достигнута. Все глобальное электронное сообщество было обведено вокруг пальца… или так только. ГЛАВА 5 Куда все подевались? - думала Сьюзан, идя по пустому помещению шифровалки.
- Ничего себе чрезвычайная ситуация.