Plant industry yarn produced by the hemp-jute industry
Did you know the very first pair of Levis were made of hemp? And did you know that hemp was planted near and around the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site to pull radioactive elements from the ground? Derived from the Cannabis Sativa plant, the fibres of hemp are well known for their durability and ruggedness. In their raw state, hemp fibres are yellowish grey to deep brown. Prior to Levis Strauss' ingenious use of hemp to create his first jean, hemp was largely used as an industrial fibre, but soon became popular in the textile world after it was used in this first pair of jeans.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Jute VS Hemp
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- Bast Fibres: Size of Production
- Material Guide: How Sustainable is Hemp?
- Industrial Hemp
- Series on Fibres: Turning Hemp into Fabric
- Plant Fibres for Textile and Technical Applications
- Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
- Natural fibre
- East London Industries : the jute factory, Stratford-le-Bow
Bast Fibres: Size of Production
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus , which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae , and more recently with Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius , but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers , and second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin.
It falls into the bast fiber category fiber collected from bast, the phloem of the plant, sometimes called the "skin" along with kenaf , industrial hemp , flax linen , ramie , etc. The industrial term for jute fiber is raw jute. Jute is also called the golden fiber for its color and high cash value.
The jute plant needs a plain alluvial soil and standing water. The suitable climate for growing jute warm and wet is offered by the monsoon climate, during the monsoon season. Soft water is necessary for jute production. Historical documents including Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal in state that the poor villagers of India used to wear clothes made of jute. The weavers used simple hand spinning wheels and hand looms, and spun cotton yarns as well.
History also suggests that Indians, especially Bengalis , used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses.
It is highly functional for carrying grains or other agricultural products. Tossa jute Corchorus olitorius is a variety thought native to South Asia. It is grown for both fiber and culinary purposes.
It is popular in some Arabian countries such as Egypt , Jordan , and Syria as a soup-based dish, sometimes with meat over rice or lentils. Bangladesh and other countries in Southeast Asia , and the South Pacific mainly use jute for its fiber in.
Tossa jute fiber is softer, silkier, and stronger than white jute. This variety shows good sustainability in the Ganges Delta climate. Coremantel, Bangladesh, is the largest global producer of the tossa jute variety. Jute was used for making textiles in the Indus valley civilization since the 3rd millennium BC .
For centuries, jute has been an integral part of the culture of East Bengal and some parts of West Bengal , precisely in the southwest of Bangladesh. Since the seventeenth century the British started trading in jute. During the reign of the British Empire , jute was also used in the military.
British jute barons grew rich by processing jute and selling manufactured products made from it. Many Scots emigrated to Bengal to set up jute factories. More than a billion jute sandbags were exported from Bengal to the trenches of World War I , and to the United States south to bag cotton. It was used in the fishing, construction, art and the arms industries.
Initially, due to its texture, it could only be processed by hand until someone in Dundee discovered that treating it with whale oil made it machine processable. In the 21st century, jute again has become an important export crop around the world, mainly in Bangladesh. The jute fiber comes from the stem and ribbon outer skin of the jute plant.
The fibers are first extracted by retting. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. After the retting process, stripping begins; women and children usually do this job. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off, then the workers dig in and grab the fibers from within the jute stem. Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides, in contrast to cotton 's heavy requirements.
The draft genome of jute Corchorus olitorius was completed. In combination with sugar, the possibility of using jute to build aeroplane panels has been considered. Jute is in great demand due to its cheapness, softness, length, lustre and uniformity of its fiber. It is called the 'brown paper bag' as it is also the most used product in gunny sacks to store rice, wheat, grains, etc.
It is also called the 'golden fiber' due to its versatile nature. Jute matting is used to prevent flood erosion while natural vegetation becomes established. For this purpose, a natural and biodegradable fiber is essential. Jute is the second most important vegetable fiber after cotton due to its versatility. Jute is used chiefly to make cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton, and to make sacks and coarse cloth. The fibers are also woven into curtains , chair coverings, carpets , area rugs, hessian cloth , and backing for linoleum.
While jute is being replaced by synthetic materials in many of these uses, [ citation needed ] some uses take advantage of jute's biodegradable nature, where synthetics would be unsuitable.
Examples of such uses include containers for planting young trees, which can be planted directly with the container without disturbing the roots, and land restoration where jute cloth prevents erosion occurring while natural vegetation becomes established. The fibers are used alone or blended with other types of fiber to make twine and rope.
Jute butts, the coarse ends of the plants, are used to make inexpensive cloth. Conversely, very fine threads of jute can be separated out and made into imitation silk. As jute fibers are also being used to make pulp and paper, and with increasing concern over forest destruction for the wood pulp used to make most paper, the importance of jute for this purpose may increase.
Jute has a long history of use in the sackings, carpets, wrapping fabrics cotton bale , and construction fabric manufacturing industry. Jute was used in traditional textile machinery as fibers having cellulose vegetable fiber content and lignin wood fiber content. But, the major breakthrough came when the automobile, pulp and paper, and the furniture and bedding industries started to use jute and its allied fibers with their non-woven and composite technology to manufacture nonwovens, technical textiles , and composites.
Therefore, jute has changed its textile fiber outlook and steadily heading towards its newer identity, i. As a textile fiber, jute has reached its peak from where there is no hope of progress, but as a wood fiber jute has many promising features.
Jute is used in the manufacture of a number of fabrics, such as Hessian cloth , sacking, scrim , carpet backing cloth CBC , and canvas.
Hessian, lighter than sacking, is used for bags, wrappers, wall-coverings, upholstery, and home furnishings. Sacking, a fabric made of heavy jute fibers, has its use in the name.
CBC made of jute comes in two types. Jute packaging is used as an eco-friendly substitute. Diversified jute products are becoming more and more valuable to the consumer today. Among these are espadrilles , soft sweaters and cardigans , floor coverings, home textiles, high performance technical textiles, geotextiles, composites, and more. Jute floor coverings consist of woven and tufted and piled carpets. Jute mats and rugs are made both by powerloom and handloom in large volume in Kerala, India.
Jute non-wovens and composites can be used for underlay, linoleum substrate, and more. Jute has many advantages as a home textile, either replacing cotton or blending with it.
It is a strong, durable, color and light-fast fiber. Also, fabrics made of jute fibers are carbon-dioxide neutral and naturally decomposable. These properties are also why jute can be used in high performance technical textiles. Moreover, jute can be grown in 4—6 months with a huge amount of cellulose being produced from the jute hurd inner woody core or parenchyma of the jute stem that can meet most of the wood needs of the world.
Jute is the major crop among others that is able to protect deforestation by industrialisation. Thus, jute is the most environment-friendly fiber starting from the seed to expired fiber, as the expired fibers can be recycled more than once. Jute is also used to make ghillie suits, which are used as camouflage and resemble grasses or brush.
Another diversified jute product is geotextiles, which made this agricultural commodity more popular in the agricultural sector. It is a lightly woven fabric made from natural fibers that is used for soil erosion control, seed protection, weed control, and many other agricultural and landscaping uses.
The geotextiles can be used more than a year and the bio-degradable jute geotextile left to rot on the ground keeps the ground cool and is able to make the land more fertile. Corchous olitorius leaves are used to make mulukhiya , sometimes considered the Egyptian national dish, but consumed in Cyprus and other Middle Eastern countries as well. It is an ingredient for stews, typically cooked with lamb or chicken. In Nigeria, leaves of Corchorus olitorius are prepared in sticky soup called ewedu together with ingredients such as sweet potato, dried small fish or shrimp.
Amongst the Yoruba of Nigeria, the leaves are called Ewedu , and in the Hausa-speaking northern Nigeria, the leaves are called turgunuwa or lallo. The cook cuts jute leaves into shreds and adds them to the soup, which normally also contains ingredients such as meat or fish, pepper, onions, and spices.
Likewise, the Lugbara of Northwestern Uganda eat the leaves in a soup they call pala bi. Jute is also a totem for Ayivu, one of the Lugbara clans. In the Philippines, especially in Ilocano-dominated areas, this vegetable, locally known as saluyot , can be mixed with either bitter gourd, bamboo shoots, loofah, or sometimes all of them. These have a slimy and slippery texture. Diversified byproducts from jute can be used in cosmetics , medicine , paints , and other products.
National Emblem of Bangladesh. Above the water lily are four stars and three connected jute leaves. State emblem of Pakistan , Jute depicted in the fourth quarter. Bangladesh Bank monogram, with three connected jute leaves at the base. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the vegetable fiber. For other uses, see Jute disambiguation. Main article: Jute cultivation.
Material Guide: How Sustainable is Hemp?
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus , which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae , and more recently with Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius , but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis.
Woodhead Publishing Bolero Ozon. Peter Lord , Peter R. Written by one of the world's leading experts, Handbook of yarn production: technology, science and economics is an authoritative and comprehensive guide to textile yarn manufacturing. The book is designed to allow readers to explore the subject in various levels of detail. The first three chapters provide an overview of yarn production, products and key principles.
There are more than 2, different plant fibres in the world. Although most of them have no economic importance, they are still used in order to meet regional demands and needs. Plant fibres can be classified according to the part of the plant they come from, such as; 1- seed fibres cotton , 2- stem fibres linen, hemp, jute , 3- leaf fibres sisal , 4- fruit fibres coconut, zucchini fibre. Cotton: Today, cotton fibers are used in many industries for yarn and weaving and knitting fabrics, as a material used for filling pillows, quilts and mattresses, as stuffing material in interior furnishings, in producing artificial silk, smokeless gunpowder, varnish, artificial leather and cellulose. Its seeds are used in many other industries, such as for making vegetable oil, soap, oil paints and oilcloth, and the pulp is also used as fodder for animals and fertilizer. Cotton fibres, which are either harvested by hand or machine cling to the seeds. Cotton production makes an important contribution to the Turkish economy.
Series on Fibres: Turning Hemp into Fabric
The Plant Jute is extracted from the bark of the white jute plant Corchorus capsularis and to a lesser extent from tossa jute C. It is a natural fibre with golden and silky shine and hence called the Golden Fibre. Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. Yields are about 2 tonnes of dry jute fibre per hectare.
Plant Fibres for Textile and Technical Applications
First the fibre classification and some general aspects are presented followed by a summary of the most widely applied natural fibres, involving quantities, harvesting methods and properties. A closer look will be given at the manufacturing of traditional natural fibre products as part of the rural industry. Natural fibres, often referred to as vegetable fibres, are extracted from plants and are classified into three categories, depending on the part of the plant they are extracted from. When determining the properties of natural fibres, one has to keep in mind that one is dealing with natural products with properties that are strongly influenced by their growing environment.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Hemp fibre processing
Natural fibre , any hairlike raw material directly obtainable from an animal, vegetable, or mineral source and convertible into nonwoven fabrics such as felt or paper or, after spinning into yarns, into woven cloth. A natural fibre may be further defined as an agglomeration of cells in which the diameter is negligible in comparison with the length. Although nature abounds in fibrous materials, especially cellulosic types such as cotton , wood , grains, and straw , only a small number can be used for textile products or other industrial purposes. Apart from economic considerations, the usefulness of a fibre for commercial purposes is determined by such properties as length, strength, pliability, elasticity, abrasion resistance, absorbency, and various surface properties. Most textile fibres are slender, flexible, and relatively strong. They are elastic in that they stretch when put under tension and then partially or completely return to their original length when the tension is removed.
Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
Jute , Hindi pat , also called allyott , either of two species of Corchorus plants— C. The latter is a bast fibre; i. Wherever bulky, strong fabrics and twines resistant to stretching are required, jute is widely used because of its low cost. Burlap is made from jute. Jute has been grown in the Bengal area of India and of present-day Bangladesh from ancient times. The export of raw jute from the Indian subcontinent to the Western Hemisphere began in the s. The fibre was used primarily for cordage manufacture until , when commercial yarn manufacture began at Dundee , Scot.
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Industrial hemp contains only a tiny amount of the psychoactive component of cannabis. In fact, industrial hemp is the fashion equivalent of the boring sibling who wants to stay home every weekend and knit socks for fun. So basically, hemp is my ideal friend! But can hemp redeem its image?
East London Industries : the jute factory, Stratford-le-Bow
This factory is owned by Messrs. The works stand on about four acres of ground, one half of which is covered in, and the rest an open space or shed. On my visit to this place, Captain Ritchie, M.
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