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Units manufacturing connections of ship systems and pipelines

Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. More information. The considerations and standards guiding pipeline design insures stability and integrity in the industry. The fluid flow equations and formulas presented thus far enable the engineer to initiate the design of a piping or pipeline system, where the pressure drop available governs the selection of pipe size. In addition, there may be velocity constraints that might dictate a larger pipe diameter.

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Pipeline design consideration and standards

The ships were fitted with Conch independent aluminum cargo tanks and entered the Algerian LNG trade in The late s and early s brought the prospect of Arctic LNG ships with a number of projects being studied. In recent years, the size and capacity of LNG carriers has increased greatly. Today we see interest for small scale LNG bunker carriers.

Some need to stay below the life rafts of Cruise ships and Ropax vessels. As of [update] , a total of vessels had been built, of which were still in service. At the end of , the global LNG shipping fleet consisted of vessels. South Korea's success stems from innovation and price point; South Korean builders introduced the first ice-breaker type LNG vessels and South Korean builders have been successful in catering to increased customer preference for Q-max vessels over Moss type.

It will have at time of writing the world's largest capacity 50, tons. According to Tradewinds data, in January there were new builds on order. A typical LNG carrier has four to six tanks located along the center-line of the vessel. Surrounding the tanks is a combination of ballast tanks , cofferdams and voids; in effect, this gives the vessel a double-hull type design. Inside each tank there are typically three submerged pumps.

There are two main cargo pumps which are used in cargo discharge operations and a much smaller pump which is referred to as the spray pump. The spray pump is used for either pumping out liquid LNG to be used as fuel via a vaporizer , or for cooling down cargo tanks. It can also be used for "stripping" out the last of the cargo in discharge operations. All of these pumps are contained within what is known as the pump tower which hangs from the top of the tank and runs the entire depth of the tank.

The pump tower also contains the tank gauging system and the tank filling line, all of which are located near the bottom of the tank. In membrane-type vessels there is also an empty pipe with a spring-loaded foot valve that can be opened by weight or pressure. This is the emergency pump tower. In the event both main cargo pumps fail the top can be removed from this pipe and an emergency cargo pump lowered down to the bottom of the pipe.

The top is replaced on the column and then the pump is allowed to push down on the foot valve and open it. The cargo can then be pumped out. All cargo pumps discharge into a common pipe which runs along the deck of the vessel; it branches off to either side of the vessel to the cargo manifolds, which are used for loading or discharging.

All cargo tank vapour spaces are linked via a vapour header which runs parallel to the cargo header. This also has connections to the sides of the ship next to the loading and discharging manifolds.

A typical cargo cycle starts with the tanks in a "gas free" condition, meaning the tanks are full of air, which allows maintenance on the tank and pumps. First, the tank must be 'inerted' to eliminate the risk of explosion. Next, the vessel goes into port to "gas-up" and "cool-down", as one still cannot load directly into the tank: The CO 2 will freeze and damage the pumps and the cold shock could damage the tank's pump column. LNG is brought onto the vessel and taken along the spray line to the main vaporiser, which boils off the liquid into gas.

This continues until all the CO 2 is removed from the tanks. Initially, the IG inert gas is vented to atmosphere. The shore terminal then burns this vapour to avoid the dangers of having large amounts of hydrocarbons present which may explode. Now the vessel is gassed up and warm. The tanks are still at ambient temperature and are full of methane. The next stage is cool-down. LNG is sprayed into the tanks via spray heads, which vaporises and starts to cool the tank.

The excess gas is again blown ashore to be re-liquified or burned at a flare stack. Bulk loading starts and liquid LNG is pumped from the storage tanks ashore into the vessel tanks. Displaced gas is blown ashore by the HD compressors. Loading continues until typically The vessel can now proceed to the discharge port. During passage various boil-off management strategies can be used. Boil-off gas can be burned in boilers to provide propulsion, or it can be re-liquefied and returned to the cargo tanks, depending on the design of the vessel.

Once in the discharge port, the cargo is pumped ashore using the cargo pumps. As the tank empties, the vapour space is filled by either gas from ashore or by vaporising some cargo in the cargo vaporiser. Either the vessel can be pumped out as far as possible, with the last being pumped out with spray pumps, or some cargo can be retained on board as a "heel".

This is referred to as the heel and this is used to cool down the remaining tanks that have no heel before loading. This must be done gradually otherwise the tanks will be cold shocked if loaded directly into warm tanks.

Cool-down can take roughly 20 [13] hours on a Moss vessel and 10—12 hours on a membrane type vessel , so carrying a heel allows cool-down to be done before the vessel reaches port giving a significant time saving. If all the cargo is pumped ashore, then on the ballast passage the tanks will warm up to ambient temperature, returning the vessel to a gassed up and warm state.

The vessel can then be cooled again for loading. If the vessel is to return to a gas free state, the tanks must be warmed up by using the gas heaters to circulate warm gas. Once the tanks are warmed up, the inert gas plant is used to remove the methane from the tanks. Once the tanks are methane free, the inert gas plant is switched to dry air production, which is used to remove all the inert gas from the tanks until they have a safe working atmosphere.

Transportation of natural gas both in the form of LNG and by pipeline causes greenhouse gas emissions, but in different ways. With pipelines, most of the emissions stem from the production of steel pipe; with LNG most of the emissions stem from liquefaction. For both pipelines and LNG, propulsion causes additional emissions pressurization of the pipeline, propulsion of the LNG tanker. Today there are four containment systems in use for new build vessels.

There is a trend towards the use of the two different membrane types instead of the self-supporting storage systems. This is most likely because prismatic membrane tanks utilize the hull shape more efficiently and thus have less void space between the cargo-tanks and ballast tanks. As a result of this, Moss-type design compared to a membrane design of equal capacity will be far more expensive to transit the Suez Canal.

However, self-supporting tanks are more robust and have greater resistance to sloshing forces, and will possibly be considered in the future for offshore storage where bad weather will be a significant factor. Most Moss type vessels have 4 or 5 tanks. The outside of the tank has a thick layer of foam insulation that is either fitted in panels or in more modern designs wound round the tank. Over this insulation is a thin layer of "tinfoil" which allows the insulation to be kept dry with a nitrogen atmosphere.

This atmosphere is constantly checked for any methane that would indicate a leak of the tank. Also the outside of the tank is checked at 3-month intervals for any cold spots that would indicate breakdown in the insulation. The tank is supported around its circumference by the equatorial ring, which is supported by a large circular skirt, known as a data-couple that is a unique combination of aluminum and steel, which takes the weight of the tank down to the ships structure. This skirt allows the tank to expand and contract during cool-down and warm-up operations.

Because of this expansion and contraction all piping into the tank comes in the top and is connected to the ships lines via flexible bellows. Inside each tank there is a set of spray heads. These heads are mounted around the equatorial ring and are used to spray Liquid LNG onto the tank walls to reduce the temperature. If both main pumps fail then to remove the cargo, the tank's safety valves are adjusted to lift at kPa. Then the filling line which goes to the bottom of the tank is opened along with the filling lines of the other tanks on board.

The pressure is then raised in the tank with the defective pumps which pushes the cargo into the other tanks where it can be pumped out. Type B tanks limit sloshing problems, an improvement over Membrane LNG carrier tanks which may break due to sloshing impact, therefore destroying the ship's hull. This was incorporated into the design following several incidents that occurred inside membrane LNG tanks. Designed by Technigaz , these tanks are of the membrane type.

The membrane consists of stainless steel with 'waffles' to absorb the thermal contraction when the tank is cooled down. The primary barrier, made of corrugated stainless steel of about 1. This is followed by a primary insulation which in turn is covered by a secondary barrier made of a material called "triplex" which is basically a metal foil sandwiched between glasswool sheets and compressed together.

This is again covered by a secondary insulation which in turn is supported by the ship's hull structure from the outside. Designed by Gaztransport , the tanks consists of a primary and secondary thin membrane made of the material Invar which has almost no thermal contraction.

The insulation is made out of plywood boxes filled with perlite and continuously flushed with nitrogen gas. The integrity of both membranes is permanently monitored by detection of hydrocarbon in the nitrogen. An evolution is proposed by NG2 , with the replacement of nitrogen by argon as the flushed inert and insulation gas.

The primary barrier is made of invar 0. The primary and secondary insulation consists of polyurethane foam panels. The tanks on board an LNG carrier effectively function as giant thermoses to keep the liquid gas cold during storage. No insulation is perfect, however, and so the liquid is constantly boiling during the voyage.

According to WGI, on a typical voyage an estimated 0. Normally an LNG tanker is powered by steam turbines with boilers. These boilers are dual fuel and can run on either methane or oil or a combination of both. The gas produced in boil off is traditionally diverted to the boilers and used as a fuel for the vessel. The gas is either fed into the boiler by tank pressure or it is increased in pressure by the LD compressors.

What fuel the vessel runs on is dependent on many factors which include the length of the voyage, desire to carry a heel for cooldown, price of oil versus price of LNG. This maximises the amount of LNG delivered but does allow tank temps to rise due to lack of evaporation. The high cargo temps can cause storage problems and offloading problems.

Pipes And Fittings

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Tmk Pipes Catalogue. As I write this blog, I feel immensely ill and it is all I can do to type and distract myself from whatever has most recently ailed me. Sludge containing various compounds from the chromium reduction process.

They are mobile transport assets and fall into three basic types; land road, rail and pipelines , water shipping , and air. Transport modes are designed to either carry passengers or freight , but most modes can carry a combination of both. For instance, an automobile has a capacity to carry some freight while a passenger plane has a bellyhold that is used for luggage and cargo. Technical characteristics relate to attributes such as speed, capacity and motive technology while operational characteristics involve the context in which modes operated, including speed limits, safety conditions or operating hours. The demand for transport and the ownership of modes are dominant commercial characteristics.

Tmk Pipes Catalogue

SPM is mainly used in areas where a dedicated facility for loading or unloading liquid cargo is not available. Located at a distance of several kilometers from the shore-facility and connected using sub-sea and sub-oil pipelines, these single point mooring SPM facilities can even handle vessels of massive capacity such as VLCC. Single point mooring SPM serves as a link between the shore-facilities and the tankers for loading or off-loading liquid and gas cargo. Some of the major benefits of using SPM are:. The offshore-anchored loading buoy is divided into different parts having dedicated functionality. Mooring and anchoring system, buoy body and product transfer system are the main parts of the SPM. The SPM is moored to the seabed using mooring arrangement which includes anchors, anchor chains, chain stoppers etc. The mooring arrangement is such that it permits the buoy to move freely within defined limits, considering wind, waves, current, and tanker ship conditions. The buoy is anchored to the seabed using anchor chains legs which are attached to the anchor point gravity based or piled on the seabed. Chain stoppers are used to connect the chains to the buoy.

At home at sea

We use the vast experience of our engineers, gained through years of service in the marine industry, combined with advanced research into structure and hydrodynamics, to ensure development of the most relevant and up-to-date Rules. Bureau Veritas provides a collection of more than technical documents freely available for download. These documents detail applicable requirements for certification and classification by Bureau Veritas. These documents may not to be considered Rules or Rule Notes for the classification and certification of marine units.

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Floating Production Storage and Offloading vessels, or FPSOs, are offshore production facilities that house both processing equipment and storage for produced hydrocarbons. The basic design of most FPSOs encompasses a ship-shaped vessel, with processing equipment, or topsides, aboard the vessel's deck and hydrocarbon storage below in the double hull. After processing, an FPSO stores oil or gas before offloading periodically to shuttle tankers or transmitting processed petroleum via pipelines.

Tmk Pipes Catalogue

These bearings are manufactured partially segmented. They connect oil tankers with the deposits. A turret is mounted on the inside, through which pipes are directed from the ship to multiple oil sources on the seabed.

The ships were fitted with Conch independent aluminum cargo tanks and entered the Algerian LNG trade in The late s and early s brought the prospect of Arctic LNG ships with a number of projects being studied. In recent years, the size and capacity of LNG carriers has increased greatly. Today we see interest for small scale LNG bunker carriers. Some need to stay below the life rafts of Cruise ships and Ropax vessels. As of [update] , a total of vessels had been built, of which were still in service.

Pipeline design consideration and standards

Pipes And Fittings. So it requires fewer hangers than high silicon iron or plastic pipes. Stockists and distributors pipes, valves, steam traps, fittings and instrumention. There are over different types of Kee Klamp pipe fittings. Parker shaped pipe fittings elbows, tees and crosses are hot forged and machined, while straight pipe fittings are manufactured from cold drawn barstock. Traditionally, pipe fittings were made from metal however in the last 50 or 60 years other materials, namely plastic, are now commonplace and widely used. Our fittings offer highly durable, air-testable, watertight performance without glues, epoxies, grout or awkward gaskets. We sell polyethylene pipe, butt fittings, socket fittings, electrofusion fittings, and fusion equipment.

HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT. Page 14 Pressurize the pipe stack by connecting the purging hose a safer ship design and make more space available for carrying cargo. Submerged and manufacturing of Framo hydraulic piping systems.

Floating Production Storage and Offloading vessels, or FPSOs, are offshore production facilities that house both processing equipment and storage for produced hydrocarbons. The basic design of most FPSOs encompasses a ship-shaped vessel, with processing equipment, or topsides, aboard the vessel's deck and hydrocarbon storage below in the double hull. After processing, an FPSO stores oil or gas before offloading periodically to shuttle tankers or transmitting processed petroleum via pipelines.

Allseas Lorelay

Дайте ему минутку прийти в. - Н-но… - Сьюзан произнесла слова медленно.  - Я видела сообщение… в нем говорилось… Смит кивнул: - Мы тоже прочитали это сообщение. Халохот рано принялся считать цыплят.

How Single Point Mooring (SPM) Offshore Operation Works?

- Стратмор внимательно посмотрел не.  - Я должен найти его партнера, прежде чем он узнает о смерти Танкадо. Вот почему я тебя вызвал. Мне нужна твоя помощь.

Беккер миновал указатель Центр Севильи - 2 км. Если бы ему удалось затеряться в центральной части города, у него был бы шанс спастись.

Возможно, это и есть ключ. - Вот именно, - простонал Джабба.  - Он над вами издевается. А вы тем временем погибаете.

At home at sea

Кроме всего прочего, Хейл был настоящим ходячим несчастьем, готовым свалиться на голову в любую минуту. Из задумчивости Стратмора вывел звонок мобильного телефона, едва слышный в завывании сирен и свисте пара. Не останавливаясь, он отстегнул телефон от брючного ремня.

- Говорите. - Где мой ключ? - прозвучал знакомый голос. - Кто со мной говорит? - крикнул Стратмор, стараясь перекрыть шум. - Нуматака! - огрызнулся сердитый голос.

- Коммандер. Внезапно Сьюзан вспомнила, что он должен быть в лаборатории систем безопасности. Она кружила по пустому кабинету, все еще не преодолев ужас, который вызвало у нее общение с Хейлом.

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