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Storage plant linen, hemp, kenaf and jute fibers

Biodegradable Matrices and Composites View all 17 Articles. The increase in awareness of the damage caused by synthetic materials on the environment has led to the development of eco-friendly materials. The researchers have shown a lot of interest in developing such materials which can replace the synthetic materials. As a result, there is an increase in demand for commercial use of the natural fiber-based composites in recent years for various industrial sectors.

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Cellulose fiber

JMRT provides an international medium for the publication of theoretical and experimental studies related to Metallurgy, Materials and Minerals research and technology. Materials - A2. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same.

SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and qualitative measure of the journal's impact. There have been review on kenaf fibre KF production and mechanical properties but lacks review on the treatment and surface modification on kenaf fibre. Therefore, this study is to show the type of treatment that have been done by previous researcher. A lot of methods have been investigated to find the optimum method to obtain better condition and properties for kenaf fibre.

The present review describes those applied to kenaf fibre. The most widely used chemical treatment is the alkaline treatment using a sodium hydroxide NaOH solution, followed by a silane treatment. Variety of chemical concentration for NaOH solution and silane solution are investigated and a few combined treatments such as alkaline-silane, alkaline-steam, alkaline-radiation and alkaline-bleaching are also discussed. Thus, this paper presents an overview of investigated treatment methods with application to kenaf fibre and what are the effects of chemical treatment to the surface of kenaf fibre and the mechanical properties of the composites developed based on treated kenaf fibre..

Natural fibres have been used by humans from very early times. In recent years, the usage of natural fibres in composites has received significantly increasing attention [1—15]. Fibre-reinforced composites are based on a fibre used as reinforcement and a polymer as matrix.

Natural fibres can be basically divided into animal fibres, vegetable fibres and mineral fibres as shown in Fig. Classification of natural fibres from Akil et al. There is a wide variety of plant fibres that have been investigated for the use as reinforcement in composites. The production of natural fibres has been steadily increasing, besides they are easy to handle and present great advantages in terms of eco-friendliness [17]. The mechanical properties of natural fibres are shown in Table Another important aspect for using natural fibres in various applications is their chemical composition.

The composition of some investigated natural fibres is shown in Table 2 [18,19]. The constituents of natural fibres include hemicelluloses, cellulose, pectin, lignin, waxes and water-soluble substances. The chemical composition of fibres may vary even within the same plant species, as a function of the growth conditions of the plant, geographical factors and the method of fibre extraction. Most chemical treatments of fibres pertain surface modifications as described by [2,7,].. Currently, there is still quite a great discrepancy between the strength of natural fibres and that of conventional reinforcing fibres, such as glass fibres.

The difference in strength is one of the main reasons why natural fibres cannot fully replace the glass fibres. Thus, researchers started investigating the hybridization of composites by combining two or more types of fibres to produce a new material with improved characteristics compared to those of the original materials.

Laminates composite structures consist of woven plies of reinforcing fibre, and a matrix that bonds the plies together and gives stiffness to the whole assembly. Their properties differ from those of metallic alloys since each of the materials in a composite still maintains its original chemical, physical and mechanical properties. The interfacial bonding between the fibre surface and the polymer matrix is one of the major factors that determine the mechanical properties of composites.

Example of mechanical properties that can be examine on a composites structure are by conducting tensile test [24] , thermal buckling analysis [25] , post buckling analysis [26,27] , flexure analysis [28] and bending analysis [29,30].

After testing have been done the structure can be further observe to determine the structure that undergo tensile and thermal testing have been totally damaged or still useable for certain period of time as studied by Mustapha et al. Recently, composites have become widely employed in the aerospace industry. The composites started to be applied in aircraft structures in the late s, but at first, they were used for manufacturing only military aircraft, as the military has the privilege of funding for research on composite materials [32].

Over time, the use of composite materials has been extended and they steadily replaced older structures in aircraft, which were mainly made from aluminium until then. Currently, most parts of the aircraft are manufactured from composite materials, as shown in Fig. Materials in commercial aircraft [32].. Kenaf Hibiscus cannabinus L. Kenaf originated from Africa, but more than 75 percent of the worldwide kenaf production is from India and China, which makes kenaf the major bast fibre source in these countries.

Intensive research on kenaf started in the United States in [34]. This yield percentage makes the fibre more economical compared to that of other plants. In addition, the growth of kenaf plant from seeds to heights of 3.

Kenaf fibre KF is extracted from the bast of the plant and has been extensively used as a jute-like material in the past.

In Asia, kenaf is cultivated predominantly for the fibre, the extraction process involves soaking the stalks the retting process and manual removal of the fibres.

This method has been found to give superior reinforcement quality. On the other hand, the U. The use of kenaf core materials as absorbents and animal bedding are more ready markets [36]. Nishino et al. Example of research that been done using kenaf fibre involving different type of chemical treatment and different matrix for composite structure []. These characteristics will influence the mechanical properties of the fibre reinforced composites produced. Table 3. Kenaf is produced for various applications, including paper products, absorbents, building materials, and livestock feed, which is diverging from its historical role as a cordage crop twine, rope and sackcloth.

The variety of kenaf end products will continue to extend, involving issues ranging from the choice of general agricultural production methods to marketing of kenaf products [33]. Studies on combining kenaf with synthetic fibre as E-glass Kenaf is a versatile industrial crop and has been proven as a good natural fibre for textiles and a variety of other industrial applications [42].

Vision Paper, a company based in New Mexico, has managed to produce kenaf-based papers. Ibrahim et al. Enhanced production of kenaf for dissolving pulp, which will be subsequently used to produce rayon, is expected to help the batik industry and kenaf planters on the east coast.

Other than that, the investigation done by Ali et al. Also, this will give a superior industrial product through the lifetime of the automobile, when the percentage of fibre in the manufactured components is increased..

Alkaline treatment is commonly used for chemical modification of natural fibres. An important improvement achieved by the alkaline treatment consists in altering or breaking down the hydrogen bonding that holds together the entire system structure, and in this way the surface roughness is increased. The alkali treatment of KF has been thoroughly researched []. Alkaline treatment also partially removes the lignin, oils and wax covering the outer part of the fibre cell wall.

The treatment depolymerizes the cellulose in fibre and thus opens up the short length crystallites [19]. Referring to Eq. Therefore, the alkaline treatment directly affects the cellulosic fibrils, the extraction of lignin and hemicellulosic compounds, as well as the level of polymerization [61].

A simple method of performing fibre treatment is by immersing the fibre in a certain concentration of NaOH solution for a certain period of time. Most research has focused on the effect of NaOH concentration percentage and treatment time on the strength of the treated fibre, while there are also a few studies that investigated the effect of the temperature used during fibre treatment on mechanical properties.

Table 4 is an overview of the research that has been previously done on the alkaline treatment of kenaf fibre.. Alavudeen et al. Fiore et al. Their research shows that KF treated for 48 h presents better properties and all the impurities have been removed. Meanwhile, the KF treated for h exhibits crack propagation, which indicates that the fibre has been heavily damaged, resulting in lower tensile strength..

In research done by Ikhwan Ibrahim et al. Tensile properties of single kenaf fibre [64].. Overall, the alkaline treatment has been reported as mainly involving the use of NaOH solution, and such a treatment has a few major effects on the fibre. First, it changes the fibre structure, which increases surface roughness.

Better mechanical interlocking between fibre and matrix can be achieved when the surface roughness or surface area is increased. Then, the exposure of the cellulose on the fibre surface caused by the alkaline treatment increases the number of possible reaction sites [66]. Higher percentage of alkali concentration can cause excess delignification of the natural fibre, which damages the fibre or makes it weaker. Enhancing the NaOH concentration beyond a certain percentage, the tensile strength of the composite produced has been also found to drastically decrease..

The chemical compound with the chemical formula of SiH4 is known as silane. Silanes are applied as coupling agents to glass fibres in order to ensure that they effectively adhere to a polymer matrix, which stabilizes the composite material.

There is still little research on using solely silane treatment on KF [2,67,68]. As shown in Eq. Stable covalent bonds at the cell wall are formed during the reaction and silanols are chemically adsorbed onto the fibre surface [60].

Thus, the hydrocarbon chains available by applying the silane will prevent the swelling of fibre, as illustrated by Equation 3. Covalent bonding between the matrix and the fibre is the one that enables the crosslinked network to occur. Some researchers applied silane treatment to the KF to improve the bonding between the fibre and the matrix by increasing the degree of cross-linking in the interface region.

The silane treatment also contributes to stronger bonding between the fibre and the matrix by increasing the fibre surface area [2,67,68]. The research by Cho et al. They found out that the treatment with 0. Furthermore, thermosetting unsaturated polyester UPE and Thermoplastic polypropylene PP were used as matrix and combined with chopped KF to develop composites. By the compression moulding technique, composites were produced with untreated KF or with treated one at different GPS concentrations, ranging from 0.

The most significant improvement in the properties of both thermosetting UPE and thermoplastic PP polymer composites was found when using 0. Table 6 presents an overview of the silane treatments investigated by three researchers. The silane coupling agents were concluded as effective in improving the natural fibre—polymer matrix interface, thus increasing the interfacial strength.

Stronger bonding in composites in the presence of silane treated fibre, leading to higher tensile strength of the composite material, compared to that comprising alkaline-treated fibre, confirmed positive effect of the interaction between the silane coupling agent and the fibre [69]..

Literature Review

Due to specific advantages over synthetic counterparts, plant-based natural fibers are considered promising candidates for reinforcement in polymer composites for certain applications. This chapter deals with the classification, structure, and chemical composition of plant-based natural fibers. Some important aspects of jute fiber and its use as reinforcement in polymer composites are discussed.

This case is a continuation-in-part of U. The present invention relates to the field of fiber reinforced structures and more particularly to the use of jute and kenaf fibers to reinforce thermoplastic compositions including polypropylene.

JMRT provides an international medium for the publication of theoretical and experimental studies related to Metallurgy, Materials and Minerals research and technology. Materials - A2. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same.

Natural Fibers: Applications

In addition to cellulose, the fibers may also contain hemicellulose and lignin , with different percentages of these components altering the mechanical properties of the fibers. The main applications of cellulose fibers are in the textile industry, as chemical filters, and as fiber-reinforcement composites, due to their similar properties to engineered fibers, being another option for biocomposites and polymer composites. Cellulose was discovered in by the French chemist Anselme Payen , who isolated it from plant matter and determined its chemical formula. Production of rayon "artificial silk" from cellulose began in the s, and cellophane was invented in In , Arthur D. Little of Boston, invented yet another cellulosic product, acetate, and developed it as a film. The first commercial textile uses for acetate in fiber form were developed by the Celanese Company in Hermann Staudinger determined the polymer structure of cellulose in The compound was first chemically synthesized without the use of any biologically derived enzymes in , by Kobayashi and Shoda.

Literature Review

Professor Ryszard M. Professor Koz? Growing awareness of environmental issues has led to increasing demand for goods produced from natural products, including natural fibres. The two-volume Handbook of natural fibres is an indispensible tool in understanding the diverse properties and applications of these important materials.

Method for preparing nonwood fiber paper.

Fibers derived from bio-based sources such as vegetables and animal origin are termed as natural fibers. This definition includes all natural cellulosic fibers cotton, jute, sisal, coir, flax, hemp, abaca, ramie, etc. There are also man-made cellulose fibers e. Natural fibers being cost effective and abundantly available yields high potential in various industrial and commercial applications such as in the interior applications of the passenger cars, panels for partition and false ceiling, partition boards, roof tiles, coir fibers in packaging, furniture applications, as insulating materials in low energy houses, geo-textiles for soil protection and erosion control, enhancing barrier properties, composites etc.

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Dr Richard S. Dr Blackburn is well-known for his research in the areas of green chemistry and sustainability. Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres. With increasing concerns regarding the effect the textile industry is having on the environment, more and more textile researchers, producers and manufacturers are looking to biodegradable and sustainable fibres as an effective way of reducing the impact textiles have on the environment.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: TOP 5 machine kenaf hemp decorticator stripping! how to remove the fiber from hemp,jute and kenaf?

Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibers are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibers for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties, and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fiber a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibers are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior.

The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibers: a review

Functional Fillers for Plastics. A comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the major mineral and organic fillers for plastics, their production, structure and properties, as well as their applications in terms of primary and secondary functions. Additionally, the novel classification according to modification of specific polymer properties rather than filler chemical composition will provide a better understanding of the relationships between processing, structure and properties of products containing functional fillers and the identification of new markets and applications. For engineers, scientists and technologists involved in the industrially important sector of polymer composites. He studied chemical engineering at the University of Toronto, where he took his Ph. His interests focus on polymer blends, composites, and foams, polymer modification and reactive processing, plastics recycling and life-cycle assessment, structure-property relationships, environmental considerations in polymer processing.

Sep 5, - RETTING PROCESS OF SOME BAST PLANT FIBRES AND ITS wood and cotton, or multicellular like jute, hemp, flax, and kenaf (Sur example, has 5 to 15 cells, i.e. the ultimate cell, which may be reduced upon storing or.

Tribology of Natural Fiber Polymer Composites. Elsevier , 14 thg 10, - trang. Environmental concerns are driving demand for bio-degradable materials such as plant-based natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. These composites are fast replacing conventional materials in many applications, especially in automobiles, where tribology friction, lubrication and wear is important.

Bio-based Plant Oil Polymers and Composites provides engineers and materials scientists a useful framework to help take advantage of the latest research conducted in this rapidly advancing field—enabling them to develop and commercialize their own products quickly and more successfully. Plant oil is one of the most attractive options as a substitute for non-renewable resources in polymers and composites, and is producing materials with very promising thermomechanical properties relative to traditional, petroleum-based polymers. In addition to critical processing and characterization information, the book assists engineers in deciding whether or not they should use a plant oil-based polymer over a petroleum-based polymer, discussing sustainability concerns, biodegradability, associated costs, and recommended applications. The book details the advancements in the development of polymeric materials and composites from plant oils, and provides a critical review of current applications in various fields, including packaging, biomedical, and automotive applications.

Topics of interest include mechanical properties, such as tensile, flexural, compression, shear, impact, fracture toughness, low and high velocity impact, and anti-ballistic properties of natural fiber, synthetic fibers and hybrid composites materials. It also covers physical properties, such as density, water absorption, thickness swelling, and void content of composite materials fabricated from natural or synthetic materials. Written by leading experts in the field, and covering composite materials developed from different natural fibers and their hybridization with synthetic fibers, the book's chapters provide cutting-edge, up-to-date research on the characterization, analysis and modelling of composite materials.

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