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Equipment isn't meant to last forever. Like everything else, it has an expiration date, and it can begin to exhibit signs of wear and tear that require attention. Beyond simply becoming less reliable because of system changes over the years, older equipment may not be able to safely protect personnel and other equipment as it was designed. Additionally, it cannot support the cloud or Internet of Things IoT connectivity required of modern facility infrastructure. However, restricted budgets and the cost of downtime from lengthy replacement processes often mean it can be difficult to secure management buy-in on necessary upgrades, which are frequently deferred until the last minute — but they don't need to be.

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Space-based solar power SBSP is the concept of collecting solar power in outer space and distributing it to Earth. Potential advantages of collecting solar energy in space include a higher collection rate and a longer collection period due to the lack of a diffusing atmosphere , and the possibility of placing a solar collector in an orbiting location where there is no night.

Space-based solar power systems convert sunlight to microwaves outside the atmosphere, avoiding these losses and the downtime due to the Earth's rotation , but at great cost due to the expense of launching material into orbit.

SBSP is considered a form of sustainable or green energy , renewable energy , and is occasionally considered among climate engineering proposals. It is attractive to those seeking large-scale solutions to anthropogenic climate change or fossil fuel depletion such as peak oil.

Various SBSP proposals have been researched since the early s, [1] [2] but none are economically viable with present-day space launch infrastructure. Some technologists speculate that this may change in the distant future if an off-world industrial base were to be developed that could manufacture solar power satellites out of asteroids or lunar material, or if radical new space launch technologies other than rocketry should become available in the future.

Besides the cost of implementing such a system, SBSP also introduces several technological hurdles, including the problem of transmitting energy from orbit to Earth's surface for use. Since wires extending from Earth's surface to an orbiting satellite are neither practical nor feasible with current technology, SBSP designs generally include the use of some manner of wireless power transmission with its concomitant conversion inefficiencies, as well as land use concerns for the necessary antenna stations to receive the energy at Earth's surface.

The collecting satellite would convert solar energy into electrical energy on board, powering a microwave transmitter or laser emitter, and transmit this energy to a collector or microwave rectenna on Earth's surface. Contrary to appearances of SBSP in popular novels and video games, most designs propose beam energy densities that are not harmful if human beings were to be inadvertently exposed, such as if a transmitting satellite's beam were to wander off-course.

But the vast size of the receiving antennas that would be necessary would still require large blocks of land near the end users to be procured and dedicated to this purpose.

The service life of space-based collectors in the face of challenges from long-term exposure to the space environment, including degradation from radiation and micrometeoroid damage, could also become a concern for SBSP. In , science fiction writer Isaac Asimov published the science fiction short story " Reason ", in which a space station transmits energy collected from the Sun to various planets using microwave beams.

Glaser then was a vice president at Arthur D. Little , Inc. They include:. The project was not continued with the change in administrations after the US Federal elections. The Office of Technology Assessment concluded that "Too little is currently known about the technical, economic, and environmental aspects of SPS to make a sound decision whether to proceed with its development and deployment. In addition, without further research an SPS demonstration or systems-engineering verification program would be a high-risk venture.

This is, of course, an absolute requirement of space solar power. Conversely, Pete Worden of NASA claimed that space-based solar is about five orders of magnitude more expensive than solar power from the Arizona desert, with a major cost being the transportation of materials to orbit. Worden referred to possible solutions as speculative, and which would not be available for decades at the earliest. On Nov 2, , China proposed space collaboration with India that mentioned SBSP, " may be Space-based Solar Power initiative so that both India and China can work for long term association with proper funding along with other willing space faring nations to bring space solar power to earth.

In Feb. SERT went about developing a solar power satellite SPS concept for a future gigawatt space power system, to provide electrical power by converting the Sun's energy and beaming it to Earth's surface, and provided a conceptual development path that would utilize current technologies.

SERT proposed an inflatable photovoltaic gossamer structure with concentrator lenses or solar heat engines to convert sunlight into electricity. The program looked both at systems in sun-synchronous orbit and geosynchronous orbit. Some of SERT's conclusions:. JAXA announced on 12 March that they wirelessly beamed 1. This is the standard plan for this type of power. The SBSP concept is attractive because space has several major advantages over the Earth's surface for the collection of solar power:.

Space-based solar power essentially consists of three elements: [2]. The space-based portion will not need to support itself against gravity other than relatively weak tidal stresses.

It needs no protection from terrestrial wind or weather, but will have to cope with space hazards such as micrometeors and solar flares. Two basic methods of conversion have been studied: photovoltaic PV and solar dynamic SD. Most analyses of SBSP have focused on photovoltaic conversion using solar cells that directly convert sunlight into electricity.

Solar dynamic uses mirrors to concentrate light on a boiler. The use of solar dynamic could reduce mass per watt. Wireless power transmission was proposed early on as a means to transfer energy from collection to the Earth's surface, using either microwave or laser radiation at a variety of frequencies.

William C. Brown demonstrated in , during Walter Cronkite 's CBS News program, a microwave-powered model helicopter that received all the power it needed for flight from a microwave beam.

Between and , Bill Brown was technical director of a JPL Raytheon program that beamed 30 kW of power over a distance of 1 mile 1. Microwave power transmission of tens of kilowatts has been well proven by existing tests at Goldstone in California [48] [49] [50] and Grand Bassin on Reunion Island More recently, microwave power transmission has been demonstrated, in conjunction with solar energy capture, between a mountain top in Maui and the island of Hawaii 92 miles away , by a team under John C.

It includes an introduction to SPS, current research and future prospects. Laser power beaming was envisioned by some at NASA as a stepping stone to further industrialization of space. In the s, researchers at NASA worked on the potential use of lasers for space-to-space power beaming, focusing primarily on the development of a solar-powered laser.

In it was suggested that power could also be usefully beamed by laser from Earth to space. The SELENE program was a two-year research effort, but the cost of taking the concept to operational status was too high, and the official project ended in before reaching a space-based demonstration. In the use of an Earth-based laser to power an electric thruster for space propulsion was proposed by Grant Logan, with technical details worked out in He proposed using diamond solar cells operating at degrees [ clarification needed ] to convert ultraviolet laser light.

The main advantage of locating a space power station in geostationary orbit is that the antenna geometry stays constant, and so keeping the antennas lined up is simpler. Another advantage is that nearly continuous power transmission is immediately available as soon as the first space power station is placed in orbit, LEO requires several satellites before they are producing nearly continuous power. Power beaming from geostationary orbit by microwaves carries the difficulty that the required 'optical aperture' sizes are very large.

These sizes can be somewhat decreased by using shorter wavelengths, although they have increased atmospheric absorption and even potential beam blockage by rain or water droplets. Because of the thinned array curse , it is not possible to make a narrower beam by combining the beams of several smaller satellites. The large size of the transmitting and receiving antennas means that the minimum practical power level for an SPS will necessarily be high; small SPS systems will be possible, but uneconomic.

The Earth-based rectenna would likely consist of many short dipole antennas connected via diodes. Rectennas would likely be several kilometers across. A laser SBSP could also power a base or vehicles on the surface of the Moon or Mars, saving on mass costs to land the power source. A spacecraft or another satellite could also be powered by the same means. In a report presented to NASA on Space Solar Power, the author mentions another potential use for the technology behind Space Solar Power could be for Solar Electric Propulsion Systems that could be used for interplanetary human exploration missions.

One problem for the SBSP concept is the cost of space launches and the amount of material that would need to be launched. Much of the material launched need not be delivered to its eventual orbit immediately, which raises the possibility that high efficiency but slower engines could move SPS material from LEO to GEO at an acceptable cost. Examples include ion thrusters or nuclear propulsion. Beyond the mass of the panels, overhead including boosting to the desired orbit and stationkeeping must be added.

To these costs must be added the environmental impact of heavy space launch missions, if such costs are to be used in comparison to earth-based energy production. Gerard O'Neill , noting the problem of high launch costs in the early s, proposed building the SPS's in orbit with materials from the Moon.

This s proposal assumed the then-advertised future launch costing of NASA's space shuttle. This approach would require substantial up front capital investment to establish mass drivers on the Moon. In , when it became obvious NASA's launch cost estimates for the space shuttle were grossly optimistic, O'Neill et al. The high net energy gain of this proposal derives from the Moon's much shallower gravitational well.

Having a relatively cheap per pound source of raw materials from space would lessen the concern for low mass designs and result in a different sort of SPS being built. The low cost per pound of lunar materials in O'Neill's vision would be supported by using lunar material to manufacture more facilities in orbit than just solar power satellites.

Advanced techniques for launching from the Moon may reduce the cost of building a solar power satellite from lunar materials. Some proposed techniques include the lunar mass driver and the lunar space elevator , first described by Jerome Pearson.

Physicist Dr David Criswell suggests the Moon is the optimum location for solar power stations, and promotes lunar-based solar power. Power relay satellites orbiting around earth and the Moon reflecting the microwave beam are also part of the project. Asteroid mining has also been seriously considered. A NASA design study [79] evaluated a 10,ton mining vehicle to be assembled in orbit that would return a ,ton asteroid fragment to geostationary orbit.

Only about 3, tons of the mining ship would be traditional aerospace-grade payload. The rest would be reaction mass for the mass-driver engine, which could be arranged to be the spent rocket stages used to launch the payload. However, the true merits of such a method would depend on a thorough mineral survey of the candidate asteroids; thus far, we have only estimates of their composition.

A Lunar base with a mass driver the long structure that goes toward the horizon. NASA conceptual illustration. Sketch of the Lunar Crawler to be used for fabrication of lunar solar cells on the surface of the Moon.

Shown here is an array of solar collectors that convert power into microwave beams directed toward Earth. The use of microwave transmission of power has been the most controversial issue in considering any SPS design. The remaining microwave energy will be absorbed and dispersed well within standards currently imposed upon microwave emissions around the world.

Outside the rectenna, microwave intensities rapidly decrease, so nearby towns or other human activity should be completely unaffected. Exposure to the beam is able to be minimized in other ways. On the ground, physical access is controllable e. Other aircraft balloons , ultralight , etc. The microwave beam intensity at ground level in the center of the beam would be designed and physically built into the system; simply, the transmitter would be too far away and too small to be able to increase the intensity to unsafe levels, even in principle.

In addition, a design constraint is that the microwave beam must not be so intense as to injure wildlife, particularly birds. Experiments with deliberate microwave irradiation at reasonable levels have failed to show negative effects even over multiple generations.

A "pilot" microwave beam emitted from the center of the rectenna on the ground establishes a phase front at the transmitting antenna. There, circuits in each of the antenna's subarrays compare the pilot beam's phase front with an internal clock phase to control the phase of the outgoing signal.

Space-based solar power

Regulated plant, danger tags and lockout devices, out-of-service tags, pressure vessels, fume cupboards and cooling towers. Regulated Plant is defined by the OHS Regulations Vic , and includes many items of powered machinery and devices, and some vehicles. Non-regulated plant should be managed in accordance with general risk management requirements. Refer to Implement section on the Management System page.

The revised edition presents, extends, and updates a thorough analysis of the factors that cause and accelerate the aging of conductive and insulating materials of which transmission and distribution electrical apparatus is made. New sections in the second edition summarize the issues of the aging, reliability, and safety of electrical apparatus, as well as supporting equipment in the field of generating renewable energy solar, wind, tide, and wave power.

This website uses non-intrusive cookies to improve your user experience. You can visit our cookie privacy page for more information. Beta This is a new way of showing guidance - your feedback will help us improve it. Maintenance on plant and equipment is carried out to prevent problems arising, to put faults right, and to ensure equipment is working effectively.

5 Ways to Benefit from Equipment Modernization

Account Options Login. Commerce America , Volume 1. Halaman terpilih Halaman 7. Halaman Halaman 7. Isi Economic Highlights. Shifts in inventories have caused much of the swings. Energy Digest.

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Most illustrations are dimensioned and each building type includes plans, sections, site layouts and design details. Since it was first published in Germany in , Ernst Neufert's handbook has been progressively revised and updated through 39 editions and many translations. This fourth English language edition is translated from the 39th German edition, and represents a major new edition for an international, English speaking readership. It was invaluable for me then and it is still a useful aid in my designs.

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Chapter Page. Figure Page 13 Equipment planelevation units 1 and 2. Equipment planelevation units 1 and 2.

Plant Design and Operations, Second Edition, explores design and operational considerations for oil and gas facilities, covering all stages of the plant cycle, with an emphasis on safety and risk. The oil and gas industry is constantly looking for cost optimization strategies, requiring plant-based personnel to expand their knowledge base outside their discipline or subject. Relevant reference materials are scattered throughout various official standards, while staff lack the immediate hands-on knowledge to safely facilitate the full operational life cycle of the plant.

The role of design and equipment selection 5. However, in some instances the old influence of complacency with respect to energy matters is still very much in evidence in both mill design and operation. It is rather unfortunate that the ad-hoc addition of equipment in earlier years was rarely carried out with the advice from either equipment manufactures or plant designers; in any event, energy costs at the time were not considered of significance to warrant the degree of caution as is the case nowadays. It is the legacy of past actions that today's plant designers, managers and operators must rectify if energy is to be conserved to any significant degree. Indeed, it is only recently that planners, design engineers, consultants and equipment manufacturers have come to recognize the important role that reduced energy costs can play in the ultimate profitability of a manufacturing unit.

Practical Power Plant Engineering offers engineers, new to the profession, a guide to the methods of practical design, equipment selection and operation of power and heavy industrial plants as practiced by experienced engineers. The author—a noted expert on the topic—draws on decades of practical experience working in a number of industries with ever-changing technologies. This comprehensive book, written in 26 chapters, covers the electrical activities from plant design, development to commissioning. It is filled with descriptive examples, brief equipment data sheets, relay protection, engineering calculations, illustrations, and common-sense engineering approaches. The book explores the most relevant topics and reviews the industry standards and established engineering practices. For example, the author leads the reader through the application of MV switchgear, MV controllers, MCCs and distribution lines in building plant power distribution systems, including calculations of interrupting duty for breakers and contactors.

Soil Thermal Resistivity The “electrical” concrete duct bank must cool itself through the surrounding soil and backfill. The air spaces control the flow of heat. and comfortable for all the electrical equipment to allow for safe maintenance.

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Often times that is the response we receive when we have to add equipment to an existing, or nearly complete design. While there may be physical space for the equipment in question, the space requirements imposed by the National Electrical Code or other regulations around electrical equipment often make a seemingly ample-sized space just too small. Some reasons for regulatory requirements for space around electrical and other equipment include: means of egress from an enclosed space in the event of a fire, door swing clearance for protection of personnel, electrical working clearances for the protection of electrical workers, fire safety equipment access such as fire extinguishers , and equipment operational space where manual manipulation of equipment is necessary for operations personnel.

Account Options Login. United States. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development.

Space-based solar power SBSP is the concept of collecting solar power in outer space and distributing it to Earth.

User's Guide to the National Electrical Code. Brooke Stauffer. NFPA's Edition details and explains the basic NEC principles you must know to work effectively with the world's most widely used building code! Written by H.

Странно. Я вчера говорил с. Велел ему сегодня не приходить. Он ничего не сказал о том, что поменялся с тобой дежурством. У Чатрукьяна ком застрял в горле.

Чего же он ждет. Он засмеялся. Ведь пилот может радировать Стратмору.

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  1. Vosar

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