Plant manufacture ship devices and deck mechanisms
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United States Access Board
The source for all or part of the definition of this term was the Massachusetts Architectural Access Board's Draft Regulation published in December The authors wish to thank many helpful people for their contributions to this document. Ira Laster, Don Trilling and Nancy Ebersole at the sponsoring agency, Office of the Secretary of Transportation, have been most understanding and patient.
Coast Guardsmen in the field offices, too numerous to mention, gave their time to assist in the fleet data gathering effort and helped to arrange many of the field visits. Dennis Cannon, Peggy Greenwell, and David Yanchulis of the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board and David Parks of the National Park Service gave valuable insights into the technical, legal, and people aspects of access for persons with disabilities.
David Porter of Childs Engineering in Medfield, Massachusetts graciously provided cost data for the construction of an accessible dock facility in Boston. Many people in the passenger vessel industry have kindly contributed their time and facilities to the process of field work and interviews necessary for the project.
In particular, gratitude is due the members of the Working Advisory Group. The results are findings on technical feasibility and a set of cost data based on assumed access solutions.
This exploration of implementation issues will be, in part, the basis for future decision making by OST in the matter of access to waterborne transportation and accommodation assets. This document was preceded by the "Interim Report: Approach and Methodology" dated 1 October , which established the approach for the cost analysis, the technical, economic, and social factors considered, and the assumptions for developing unit costs and applying them to the industry.
The scope of the cost calculations includes new construction and alterations for the Coast Guard inspected passenger vessel fleet, and access provisions to the vessels over the piers and docks serving the fleet. It does not include foreign flagged cruise ships at this time. Neither are terminals and other associated shoreside facilities included as they are already subject to ADA regulations for transportation terminals.
Recommendations for additional future research are found at the end of the report. The calculations include only the costs of implementation, i. The benefit of providing a civil right cannot be quantified, especially in the larger sense of the improved quality of a barrier-free society. The industry may realize benefits due to increased business from persons with disabilities, insurance premium reductions, and reduced employee injuries, but data from analogous access upgrades to quantify this are not available.
The approach characterizes, by type, the numbers of vessels and shore facilities to find the costs associated with compliance based upon assumed sets of access solutions.
Unit costs reflect the access premium , that is, the increased cost of providing access relative to current practice. The access solutions do not anticipate all outcomes but were developed as widely applicable and practical designs for an industry uniquely diverse among the transportation modes, both in its services and its physical assets. The solutions also take account of the interactive complexities of ADA. A lot of good faith effort has been made by some operators to provide access accommodations.
Their knowledge of ADA is weak, however, since no regulations for vessel access have been issued. This study proposes access solution sets to be flexibly applied to a very diverse industry, since vessel size or function may present difficult technical problems and because previous ADA statutes and regulations have defined areas where access specifications may be relaxed. There is precedent for this approach, which is critical for a reasonable application to marine transportation.
Multi-deck access for wheelchairs is the critical issue, from the standpoints of cost, safety, and operations. The study finds that elevators or lifts are feasible for most multi-deck vessels, but that lift technology needs improved capacity and better availability to the marine market. Integration of these features in new vessels will be a matter of good design practice.
Elevator and lift retrofit on existing vessels, more difficult and costly than for new construction, is assumed for major alterations of larger vessels only. Other access features include unisex heads rest rooms , doors and passageways, signage and alarms, wheelchair tiedowns, and improved food service. These can be incorporated with ease in new designs, with a cost premium mainly for added space and weight. Retrofitted access features for vessel alterations may be smaller in scope, but can carry proportionally greater costs because of the difficulties encountered with modifying tightly arranged existing compartments.
The solutions developed for access from the shore over docks and piers account for manmade and environmental height barriers for wheelchair passage along that path of travel. Features for other disabilities are considered in the cost calculation, but are small items relative to solving the wheelchair barriers.
This study proposes five practicable and widely applicable access solutions which include extra long gangways, fixed intermediate ramps, extra floating docks, and accessible gangways to the vessels' decks. Available industry data lacked in several key areas and was "pushed" to develop the schedule for industry implementation.
On the vessel side, the study first develops a detailed snapshot of the current passenger vessel fleet based upon Coast Guard data. The determination of vessel service life values and replacement rates is based on limited available historical data and evidence from industry. An overall fleet growth projection of zero is used, based on Coast Guard and Army Corps of Engineers data.
Industry-wide shore facility population data are very weak, except for the ferry lines. Those data available were augmented by site visits and empirically linked to the vessel population to produce a national model.
Industry-wide growth projections for shore facilities are also assumed to be zero because 1 available fleet data show no overall growth trend, and 2 shore facility data to support a growth assumption do not exist. Costs are found using current Office of Management and Budget OMB guidance for nominal and real interest rates, assuming as the start year for implementation and present valued to The calculation of the impact costs focuses on societal cost, which is the value to society of lost or diverted resources.
These include capital outlays for access on new and modified assets and increased operating costs associated with the access features; they are calculated in a forty year cost stream and the present value found at a 4.
Amortization of capital outlays is not included. The industry implementation costs are separately calculated for the fleet and shore sectors. The cost for phasing in an accessible fleet follows from a single set of assumptions derived from a high-confidence set of population data. Table shows the results, sorted by Coast Guard regulatory category in descending order of vessel size and between new construction and existing vessel alterations.
Three distributions of high and low cost access solutions are used for both population sectors, since data on hydrographic features is scant. The calculation considers only capital costs phased in over 40 years. The body of the report also has calculations of the "business" cost, which is the same as societal cost but includes the expense of amortizing capital outlays. Amortization is at a 7. A detailed business cost summary for the vessel access sector appears in Table ; Tables an contain the data for shoreside access.
A brief study of the impact on five fictional small operators shows that some would bear potentially large expense for providing accessible vessels and docks. The ADA was signed into law in Six years later, the impact on the passenger vessel industry is unclear as no regulations have been developed for that mode of transport.
This may be partly due to the fact that marine transportation is the "forgotten stepchild" among the major modes. However, the marine industry's unique missions and operating environment and the difficulties of applying ADA's various titles thereto are probably a better explanation for the slow pace of implementation. The original act defined lines of applicability in five Titles, none of which made use of the words "vessel", "boat", or "ferry".
Three Titles affect the passenger vessel industry: Title I employment opportunity , Title II program access and public transportation , and Title III public accommodations and public transport. Both present a dual regulatory format, broadly dividing public agencies and private businesses into two groups: 1 those providing "public accommodations" as "facilities", and 2 those providing "public transportation" by "vehicles" 1.
While most entities must comply with either Title II or III, this is not the case for many passenger vessel operators, who may have to comply with both. The industry is subject to both sets of ADA regulations with the additional challenge of existing Coast Guard regulations.
Passenger vessel operators have been subject to some general provisions of ADA since its passage, that is, the broad anti-discrimination language and the requirement to make "readily achievable" and "reasonable accommodations", within limits proscribed by health and safety risks and "undue burden". The OST has been given the lead in the investigation of access for persons with disabilities on passenger vessels. The UHI conducted two seminars for affected parties and completed a report highlighting the concerns of the stakeholders and the safety and regulatory questions implied by the ADA.
The report did not identify a set of marine transportation access requirements or any associated cost impacts. The Committee developed a flexible access regime for recreational boating and fishing facilities and proposed a new section in the ADA Access Guidelines ADAAG for such unique features as gangways from dock to vessel 3. The State of Massachusetts completed a study and a negotiated regulation process titled "Marine Facilities Access" in 4.
Coast Guard Headquarters and the Marine Safety Office MSO field units have also assisted in preparation of this report by providing vessel data for the fleet characterization. The Coast Guard has also sponsored a study by students of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute WPI to rank, in order of feasibility and benefit, several access accommodations on new passenger vessels 5.
They found that crew training, onboard ramps, signs and alarms, and accessible rest rooms were practicable and that elevators, boarding ramps, and emergency equipment were less so. In the latter cases, the effects on small boat designs were given strong consideration.
A recently published interim final rule overhauls the Coast Guard's inspection and certification requirements for small passenger vessels.
The Coast Guard's response to pertinent comments in the docket is that they will work with the Department of Transportation to study the feasibility of ADA implementation 6. State and local public sector entities, such as the Woods Hole, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Steamship Authority and the City of San Francisco, have developed marine access standards 7, 8.
We have incorporated some aspects of these documents in the access solutions proposed herein. They were assembled for their advice and comments on the direction of the impact study, although not necessarily to achieve consensus views. The Group met on March 23, and later reviewed the interim report; the approach used here reflects their comments.
A working meeting was held on April 15, among representatives of the passenger vessel industry, government, and national advocacy groups to consider in depth the safety and technical issues of access onboard passenger vessels.
The findings of that group are included in several portions of this report, including the recommendations sections where the needs for future work are identified. The agenda and minutes of that meeting appear as Appendix I. Passenger vessel operators have, on the whole, been slow to provide this access to their businesses, in good part because the Government has not begun a topical rulemaking process.
There have, nonetheless, been many efforts to improve access using "readily achievable" modifications and, particularly among publicly operated services, to make substantial investments in access accommodations in both new and existing vessels and facilities. Dock access modifications and onboard accommodations are appearing on a steadily increasing number of waterfronts and vessels, mostly associated with large ferries, leisure cruise and gaming boats.
Several ocean-going cruise ships offer full access and berthing arrangements to persons with disabilities The smaller vessels and operators, however, tend to have more limited resources-- as well as more daunting size-related technical problems-- and have not moved as quickly to upgrade their facilities.
The passenger vessel industry is notable for its great variety of services, physical assets, and operating environments. The challenge of providing access includes understanding the provisions of ADA for different types of public facilities.
The spectrum of passenger vessel types and designs is almost limitless, including large cruise ships, small charter fishing vessels, historical replicas, and state-of-the-art high speed craft, among many others. The variety of designs-- the term "custom built" applies to a large number of these vessels-- and services sets passenger vessels quite apart from other modes such as air and rail, which offer more narrowly focused transportation services within much more severely proscribed design limitations.
Similarly, docks and piers are constructed in a wide variety of sizes and shapes to serve the many vessel types, under diverse sets of site constraints such as available watersheet, tides, currents, and shoreside features. The application of ADA will, generally, include the provisions for public transport and public accommodation. These definitions and the rationale for access solution sets for vessels, docks, and piers are given in Chapter 3 "Approach". Chapters 4 and 6 describe the particulars of the solution sets, while the unit and industry costs are found in Chapters 5 and 7.
Chapter 8 shows the results of several cost scenarios developed for fictional small business operators. Chapter 9 is a brief technical treatment of the effects of elevator installations on vessel stability.
Morris , Christopher W. Containing complete, up-to-date definitions for all areas of science and technology, the Dictionary is distinguished by its "Windows. Boxed and shaded for easy reference, these "Window" essays offer practical, concise synopses that make the terminology of each field easier to understand. Lewontin; Chemistry by Glenn T.
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Anchor mechanisms. The following anchor mechanisms are used on sea vessels: anchors half-brushes anchor or anchor. The anchor mechanisms serve to release the anchor and the anchor chain when the ship is anchored; anchoring the anchorage during anchorage; Anchoring — pulling the ship to the anchor, selecting the chain and anchor and pulling the anchor into the vessel; mooring operations, if there are no specially provided mechanisms for these purposes. The main element of any anchor mechanism working with the purpose is a chain cam drum — an asterisk. The horizontal position of the axis of the sprocket is peculiar to the bracelets, the vertical position to the spiers. For some modern ships for a number of reasons, conventional windlasses or spiers are not advisable, therefore, anchor mooring winches are installed on such vessels. The winches are also installed with the combined ropes for a deep-water parking. According to the speed of chain selection, the anchor mechanisms are divided into three groups: 1 with a normal selection speed 0. The anchor mechanisms of most maritime transport vessels belong to the first group.
Who Should Exhibit?
The source for all or part of the definition of this term was the Massachusetts Architectural Access Board's Draft Regulation published in December The authors wish to thank many helpful people for their contributions to this document. Ira Laster, Don Trilling and Nancy Ebersole at the sponsoring agency, Office of the Secretary of Transportation, have been most understanding and patient. Coast Guardsmen in the field offices, too numerous to mention, gave their time to assist in the fleet data gathering effort and helped to arrange many of the field visits.
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Glossary of Supply Chain Terms
The Code of Federal Regulations is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. I am aware that there are significant penalties for submitting false Information Including the possibility of fine and imprisonment. I am aware that there are significant penalties for submitting false information including Failures that are caused entirely or in part by poor maintenance, careless operation, or any other preventable upset condition or preventable equipment breakdown shall not be considered malfunctions.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: MASSIVE GLITCH, PLANT VS. PLANT, 2 FULL GAMES! -PvZ Heroes
Based on the print dictionary of the same title, this covers engineering, life sciences, mathematics, computers, medical sciences, physical sciences, and the social sciences. It is yet another Access Online via Elsevier Bolero Ozon. Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology. Christopher G. Morris , Christopher W.
NCBI Bookshelf. This chapter focuses on foodborne disease, including disease associated with bottled water and ice. The previous chapter chapter 2 considered disease associated with potable water supplied on board. Foodborne outbreaks have been associated with sourcing unsafe food. Therefore, the first preventive strategy should be to source safe food. Even if the sourced food is safe, measures need to be put in place to ensure that it remains safe during the transfer, storage, preparation and serving activities that follow. An understanding of the ship food supply and transfer chain will help to illustrate the points at which the food can become contaminated en route to the point of consumption. Generally, the ship food supply and transfer chain consists of five major components that provide multiple opportunities for the introduction, or proliferation, of contaminants in food:.
Pre Register Now! Who Should Exhibit? Home Who Should Exhibit? Harbor and hydraulic engineering Harbor design, building and reengineering Quays and marine facilities building Hydraulic facilities and dredging works quays, breakwaters, pontoons Power and special equipment, construction materials Monitoring and hydraulic structures control equipment Marine equipment for tow, mounting and other works Underwater equipment Navigation and radar equipment for naval bases and harbors Protection systems, accident prevention system for marine facilities Navigation security Security monitoring facilities Structures, mechanisms and equipment monitoring Diagnostic systems for structures, mechanisms and equipment Shipping fault detection system Testing equipment for ships, mechanism and devices Marine trouble-free operation support
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