Factory fabrication tape recorders and set-top boxes
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VHS short for Video Home System    is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes. From the s, magnetic tape video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized video tape recorders VTRs.
At that time, the devices were used only in expensive professional environments such as television studios and medical imaging fluoroscopy. In the s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses. The television industry viewed videocassette recorders VCRs as having the power to disrupt their business, while television users viewed the VCR as the means to take control of their viewing experience.
In the s and early s, there was a format war in the home video industry. Two of the standards, VHS and Betamax , received the most media exposure. VHS eventually won the war, dominating 60 percent of the North American market by   and emerging as the dominant home video format throughout the tape media period.
The earliest of these formats, LaserDisc , was not widely adopted across Europe, but was hugely popular in Japan and a minor hit in the United States. Kenjiro Takayanagi , a television broadcasting pioneer then working for JVC as its vice president, saw the need for his company to produce VTRs for the Japan market, and at a more affordable price.
In , JVC developed a two-head video tape recorder, and by a color version for professional broadcasting. In , JVC collaborated with Sony Corporation and Matsushita Electric Matsushita was then parent company of Panasonic and is now known by that name, also majority stockholder of JVC until in building a video recording standard for the Japanese consumer.
U-matic was successful in business and some broadcast applications such as electronic news-gathering , but due to cost and limited recording time very few of the machines were sold for home use.
Soon after, Sony and Matsushita broke away from the collaboration effort, in order to work on video recording formats of their own. Sony started working on Betamax , while Matsushita started working on VX. Sony and Matsushita also produced U-matic systems of their own. In early , the commercial video recording industry in Japan took a financial hit.
However, despite the lack of funding, Takano and Shiraishi continued to work on the project in secret. By , the two engineers had produced a functional prototype. In , the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry MITI , desiring to avoid consumer confusion , attempted to force the Japanese video industry to standardize on just one home video recording format.
With this prototype, Sony persuaded the MITI to adopt Betamax as the standard, and allow it to license the technology to other companies.
JVC believed that an open standard , with the format shared among competitors without licensing the technology, was better for the consumer. Matsushita also regarded Betamax's one-hour recording time limit as a disadvantage. However, the collaboration of JVC and its partners was much stronger, and eventually led the MITI to drop its push for an industry standard.
Sony's Betamax competed with VHS throughout the late s and into the s see Videotape format war. Betamax's major advantages were its smaller cassette size, higher video quality, and earlier availability, but its shorter recording time proved to be a major shortcoming. Originally, Beta I machines using the NTSC television standard were able to record one hour of programming at their standard tape speed of 1. Betamax's smaller-sized cassette limited the size of the reel of tape, and could not compete with VHS's two-hour capability by extending the tape length.
Additionally, VHS had a "far less complex tape transport mechanism" than Betamax, and VHS machines were faster at rewinding and fast-forwarding than their Sony counterparts. It was also capable of recording four hours in LP long play mode. The flip-up cover that protects the tape has a built-in latch with a push-in toggle on the right side bottom view image. The VHS cassette also includes an anti-despooling mechanism consisting of several plastic parts between the plastic spools, near the front of the tape white and black in the top view.
The spool latches are released by a push-in lever within a 6. There is a clear tape leader at both ends of the tape to provide an optical auto-stop for the VCR transport mechanism. A light source is inserted into the cassette through the circular hole in the center of the underside when loaded in the VCR, and two photodiodes are located to the left and right sides of where the tape exits the cassette.
When the clear tape reaches one of these, enough light will pass through the tape to the photodiode to trigger the stop function; in more sophisticated machines it will start rewinding the cassette when the trailing end is detected.
Early VCRs used an incandescent bulb as the light source, which regularly failed and caused the VCR to erroneously think that a cassette is loaded when empty, or would detect the blown bulb and stop functioning completely. Later designs use an infrared LED which had a much longer lifetime. The recording media is a The tape speed for "Standard Play" mode see below is 3. The tape length for a T VHS cassette is As with almost all cassette-based videotape systems, VHS machines pull the tape out from the cassette shell and wrap it around the inclined head drum which rotates at VHS uses an "M-loading" system, also known as M-lacing, where the tape is drawn out by two threading posts and wrapped around more than degrees of the head drum and also other tape transport components in a shape roughly approximating the letter M.
More frequently however, VHS tapes are thicker than the required minimum to avoid complications such as jams or tears in the tape. The slower speeds cause a very noticeable reduction in linear non-hifi audio track quality as well, as the linear tape speed becomes much lower than what is commonly considered a satisfactory minimum for audio recording. In order to avoid confusion, manufacturers indicate the playing time in minutes that can be expected for the market the tape is sold in.
As VHS was designed to facilitate recording from various sources, including television broadcasts or other VCR units, content producers quickly found that home users were able to use the devices to copy videos from one tape to another.
Despite the generation loss , this was regarded as a widespread problem, which the members of the Motion Picture Association of America MPAA claimed caused them great financial losses. In response, several companies developed technologies to protect copyrighted VHS tapes from casual duplication by home users.
The most popular method was Macrovision , produced by a company of the same name. According to Macrovision:. Over commercial duplication facilities around the world are equipped to supply Macrovision videocassette copy protection to rights owners The system was first used in copyrighted movies beginning with the film The Cotton Club.
Macrovision copy protection saw refinement throughout its years, but has always worked by essentially introducing deliberate errors into a protected VHS tape's output video stream.
These errors in the output video stream are ignored by most televisions, but will interfere with re-recording of programming by a second VCR. The first version of Macrovision introduces high signal levels during the vertical blanking interval , which occurs between the video fields.
These high levels confuse the automatic gain control circuit in most VHS VCRs, leading to varying brightness levels in an output video, but are ignored by the TV as they are out of the frame-display period. Level III protection added additional colorstriping techniques to further degrade the image.
These protection methods worked well to defeat analog-to-analog copying by VCRs of the time. Products capable of digital video recording are mandated by law to include features which detect Macrovision encoding of input analog streams, and reject copying of the video. The erase head is fed by a high level, high frequency AC signal that overwrites any previous recording on the tape.
The tape path then carries the tape around the spinning head drum, wrapping it around a little more than degrees called the omega transport system in a helical fashion, assisted by the slanted tape guides.
The head rotates constantly at approximately  rpm in NTSC machines, exactly in PAL, each complete rotation corresponding to one frame of video. Two tape heads are mounted on the cylindrical surface of the drum, degrees apart from each other, so that the two heads "take turns" in recording.
The rotation of the head drum, combined with the relatively slow movement of the tape, results in each head recording a track oriented at a diagonal with respect to the length of the tape. This is referred to as helical scan recording. To maximize the use of the tape, the video tracks are recorded very close together to each other. To reduce crosstalk between adjacent tracks on playback, an azimuth recording method is used: The gaps of the two heads are not aligned exactly with the track path.
Instead, one head is angled at plus seven degrees from the track, and the other at minus seven degrees. This results, during playback, in destructive interference of the signal from the tracks on either side of the one being played. One tape head records an entire picture field. The original VHS specification had only two video heads. Later models implemented at least one more pair of heads, which were used at and optimized for the EP tape speed.
The high tape-to-head speed created by the rotating head results in a far higher bandwidth than could be practically achieved with a stationary head. The luminance black and white portion of the video is recorded as a frequency modulated , with a down-converted " color under " chroma color signal recorded directly at the baseband. Each helical track contains a single field 'even' or 'odd' field, equivalent to half a frame encoded as an analog raster scan , similar to analog TV broadcasts.
The horizontal resolution is lines per picture height, or about lines across a scan line, and the vertical resolution the number of scan lines is the same as the respective analog TV standard for PAL or for NTSC ; usually, somewhat fewer scan lines are actually visible due to overscan.
The frequency modulation of the VHS luminance signal is limited to 3 megahertz, which makes higher resolutions technically impossible even with the highest-quality recording heads and tape materials, but an HQ branded deck includes luminance noise reduction, chroma noise reduction, white clip extension, and improved sharpness circuitry.
The effect was to increase the apparent horizontal resolution of a VHS recording from to analog equivalent to pixels from left-to-right, in digital terminology. S-VHS was designed for higher resolution, but failed to gain popularity outside Japan because of the high costs of the machines and tapes. After leaving the head drum, the tape passes over the stationary audio and control head. This records a control track at the bottom edge of the tape, and one or two linear audio tracks along the top edge.
In the original VHS specification, audio was recorded as baseband in a single linear track, at the upper edge of the tape, similar to how an audio compact cassette operates. The recorded frequency range was dependent on the linear tape speed. The signal-to-noise ratio SNR was an acceptable 42 dB. Using S-VHS tapes, however, can yield better audio and video quality due to the tapes being designed with almost twice the bandwidth in mind with the same speed.
Audio cannot be recorded on a VHS tape without recording a video signal, even in the audio dubbing mode. If there is no video signal to the VCR input, most VCRs will record black video as well as generate a control track while the audio is being recorded. Some early VCRs would record audio without a control track signal, but this was of little practical use since the absence of a control track signal meant that the linear tape speed was irregular during playback.
More expensive decks offered stereo audio recording and playback. Linear stereo, as it was called, fit two independent channels in the same space as the original mono audiotrack.
While this approach preserved acceptable backward compatibility with monoaural audio heads, the splitting of the audio track degraded the signal's SNR to the point that audible tape hiss was objectionable at normal listening volume. To counteract tape hiss, decks applied Dolby B noise reduction for recording and playback. Dolby B dynamically boosts the mid-frequency band of the audio program on the recorded medium, improving its signal strength relative to the tape's background noise floor, then attenuates the mid-band during playback.
Dolby B is not a transparent process, and Dolby-encoded program material will exhibit an unnatural mid-range emphasis when played on non-Dolby capable VCRs. Another alternative would be using noise reduction systems similar to DBX, that is, by recording audio with high volume but with dynamic range compression. On playback the decompression will yield original audio but since weaker signals get attenuated the hiss can also be significantly attenuated. High-end consumer recorders took advantage of the linear nature of the audio track, as the audio track could be erased and recorded without disturbing the video portion of the recorded signal.
Hence, "audio dubbing" and "video dubbing", where either the audio or video are re-recorded on tape without disturbing the other , were supported features on prosumer linear video editing -decks.
Top 10 Best Portable Audio Recorders for 2020 Reviews
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Infomir — manufacturer of MAG set-top boxes for IPTV/OTT
VHS short for Video Home System    is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes. From the s, magnetic tape video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized video tape recorders VTRs. At that time, the devices were used only in expensive professional environments such as television studios and medical imaging fluoroscopy. In the s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses.
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Set Top Box
Enjoy the warmth of analog sound by releasing your music on cassette tape. Click this banner to go to the Cassette Duplication page. National Audio offers tabs-in and tabs-out cassettes loaded with our own Ferromaster C magnetic tape.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: The Last Audio Cassette Factory
We commenced our operations in with the assembly and export of colour televisions. With changes in technology over the years and introduction of new products in the industry, we also manufactured video cassette recorders, DVD players, set top boxes, LCD televisions, home theatres and LED televisions for various customers including some brands in the consumer electronics industry. Our capabilities in LED TV designing include panel designing, main electronic board designing, mechanical and acoustics. The miniscule market for LCD TVs is largely catered by the older models of the major players and other small players. Our strategy in the consumer electronics vertical is to further strengthen relationships with our existing customers, migrate towards ODM model, focus on enhancement of design capabilities and develop a large range of product portfolio, like smart TVs, ultra-high definition, commercial display and signage display, invest in new tools such as backlight unit, expand our geographical footprint and manufacturing capacity by way of the proposed facility in Tirupati for servicing markets in South India. Industry Served Consumer Electronics.
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Portable Audio Recorders prove to be a useful device in a number of varying situations. Music professionals will particularly look for recorders that can record music in a multitude of different settings—music concerts, band rehearsals, solo recordings of vocals or instruments , choir sessions and more. However, portable digital and audio recorders serve a variety of other functions as well—professional camera-mount onset recordings, recording interviews, lectures, meetings, podcasts and so forth.
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Content protection and digital rights management DRM are fields that receive a lot of attention: content owners require systems that protect and maximize their revenues; consumers want backwards compatibility, while they fear that content owners will spy on their viewing habits; and academics are afraid that DRM may be a barrier to knowledge sharing. DRM technologies have a poor reputation and are not yet trusted. This book describes the key aspects of content protection and DRM systems, the objective being to demystify the technology and techniques. In the first part of the book, the author builds the foundations, with sections that cover the rationale for protecting digital video content; video piracy; current toolboxes that employ cryptography, watermarking, tamper resistance, and rights expression languages; different ways to model video content protection; and DRM.
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